2017 journal article
Noncanocial cell death program independent of caspase activation cascade and necroptotic modules is elicited by loss of TGF beta-activated kinase 1
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7.
Abstract Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in several forms including apoptosis and necroptosis. Apoptosis is executed by the activation of caspases, while necroptosis is dependent on the receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Precise control of cell death is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Indeed, necroptosis is triggered by caspase inhibition to ensure cell death. Here we identified a previously uncharacterized cell death pathway regulated by TAK1, which is unexpectedly provoked by inhibition of caspase activity and necroptosis cascades. Ablation of TAK1 triggers spontaneous death in macrophages. Simultaneous inhibition of caspases and RIPK3 did not completely restore cell viability. Previous studies demonstrated that loss of TAK1 in fibroblasts causes TNF-induced apoptosis and that additional inhibition of caspase leads to necroptotic cell death. However, we surprisingly found that caspase and RIPK3 inhibitions do not completely suppress cell death in Tak1 -deficient cells. Mechanistically, the execution of the third cell death pathway in Tak1 -deficient macrophages and fibroblasts were mediated by RIPK1-dependent rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, activation of RIPK1 was sufficient to induce cell death. Therefore, loss of TAK1 elicits noncanonical cell death which is mediated by RIPK1-induced oxidative stress upon caspase and necroptosis inhibition to further ensure induction of cell death.