2022 journal article
Spark plasma sintered, MoNbTi-based multi-principal element alloys with Cr, V, and Zr
JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, 927.
MoNbTi, MoNbTiZr, CrMoNbTiZr, and MoNbTiVZr multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) were fabricated via spark plasma sintering (SPS) and investigated for use in high-strength applications. The fabrication method by SPS and powder metallurgy differs from those presented in the prior literature, where most MPEAs are fabricated using arc melting (AM) methods. Cryogenic milling was used to maximize potential defect sinks (grain boundaries) for radiation resistance and to increase ultimate tensile strength through the Hall-Petch effect. SPS was chosen for consolidation in order to maintain a fine-grained structure during densification. Each alloy was characterized using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for phase identification and compositional homogeneity. The base ternary alloy MoNbTi presented a predominantly single BCC system with minor cubic phases. The introduction of additional alloying elements—Zr, V, and Cr—heightened the phase complexity and increased the fractions of a secondary BCC phase and an HCP phase from Zr. The addition of Cr induced a larger fraction of the Laves phase to form. The addition of V caused the precipitation of small Mo inclusions. Thermodynamic analysis was performed to understand the separation of phases in each alloy. Discrepancies among the phase predictions generated by thermodynamic models, phases previously presented in the literature, and the characterization results suggest that MPEA fabrication methods, especially solid-state methods, require significant investigation to ensure that alloys can remain stable throughout their anticipated service lifetimes.