2018 journal article
Structural Characterization of Loblolly Pine Derived Biochar by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, 6(2), 2621–2629.
Biochar from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as a sustainable material with versatile applications, but its detailed properties are poorly understood because of its structural complexity. We propose a biochar structural development model based on experimental results including composition analysis, surface area and pore analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Loblolly pine derived biochars were produced at different carbonization temperatures between 300 to 1000 °C. Fixed carbon, sp2 content, and number of graphene layers increased with increased carbonization temperature. Alternating average C–C bond length, interlayer spacing distance, and layer coherence length were observed. Bulk plasmon excitation energy was correlated to the average C–C bond length, and it serves as a good indicator of the carbon structure development when compared to the perfect graphitic carbon structure. On the basis of the experimental results, four different ...