2023 journal article
Battery Electric Vehicles Network Equilibrium With Flow-Dependent Energy Consumption
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.
Recent studies show that energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) increases in traffic congestion. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of link flow on BEV energy consumption. The flow-dependent energy consumption changes the route choice and user equilibrium conditions. In this paper, some shortcomings of available BEV flow-dependent energy consumption user equilibrium models are shown first. Then, “sufficient” as well as “sufficient and necessary” user equilibrium based on the generalized travel time of each path and sub-path penalties are defined and modeled for flow-dependent energy consumption. While it is difficult to solve the sufficient and necessary model, the sufficient model can be solved directly with commercial solvers for small to medium-sized networks by generating all paths. An iterative algorithm is also presented to generate paths as required to solve the problem for larger networks. Numerical examples demonstrate the model and proposed algorithm, and analyze the impact of flow-dependent energy consumption on equilibrium conditions.