A novel approach to charcoal fine waste: sustainable use as filling of polymeric matrices
Abstract This study aims to evaluate charcoal fines as potential reinforcing agents in biocomposites. Charcoal has both high carbon content and surface area depending on the manufacturing temperatures. Charcoal is a common residue in the coal industry that we propose using it to reinforce filling agents in several matrices in order to add value to this residue. This study investigated charcoal fines when using three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 600, and 800°C) to identify the most suitable charcoal to be used as raw materials in producing carbon biocomposites. We evaluated apparent density, porosity, morphology, and immediate chemical composition, and then performed a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Charcoal fines produced at 800°C showed promising results as a polymeric matrix filling due to their higher porosity (81.08%), fixed carbon content (96.77%), and hydrophobicity.