Horus: Persistent Security for Extended Persistence-Domain Memory Systems
2022 55TH ANNUAL IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MICROARCHITECTURE (MICRO), pp. 1255–1269.
Persistent memory presents a great opportunity for crash-consistent computing in large-scale computing systems. The ability to recover data upon power outage or crash events can significantly improve the availability of large-scale systems, while improving the performance of persistent data applications (e.g., database applications). However, persistent memory suffers from high write latency and requires specific programming model (e.g., Intel’s PMDK) to guarantee crash consistency, which results in long latency to persist data. To mitigate these problems, recent standards advocate for sufficient back-up power that can flush the whole cache hierarchy to the persistent memory upon detection of an outage, i.e., extending the persistence domain to include the cache hierarchy. In the secure NVM with extended persistent domain(EPD), in addition to flushing the cache hierarchy, extra actions need to be taken to protect the flushed cache data. These extra actions of secure operation could cause significant burden on energy costs and battery size. We demonstrate that naive implementations could lead to significantly expanding the required power holdup budget (e.g., 10.3x more operations than EPD system without secure memory support). The significant overhead is caused by memory accesses of secure metadata. In this paper, we present Horus, a novel EPD-aware secure memory implementation. Horus reduces the overhead during draining period of EPD system by reducing memory accesses of secure metadata. Experiment result shows that Horus reduces the draining time by 5x, compared with the naive baseline design.