2022 journal article

Detection and molecular characterization of Salmonella species on US goat operations


By: S. Hempstead n, C. Gensler n, S. Keelara n, M. Brennan*, N. Urie*, A. Wiedenheft*, K. Marshall*, B. Morningstar-Shaw* ...

author keywords: Goat; Salmonella; Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
MeSH headings : United States / epidemiology; Animals; Humans; Goats; Gentian Violet; Salmonella; Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use; Tetracycline; Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Microbial Sensitivity Tests / veterinary; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / genetics
Source: Web Of Science
Added: December 19, 2022

Salmonella species are an important cause of gastrointestinal disease in animals, including goats. Additionally, Salmonella species are among the top five U.S. foodborne pathogens causing illness to humans. The goat industry is rapidly expanding in the U.S. yet estimates of Salmonella prevalence within these populations is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal prevalence, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), biofilm potential, and virulence profile of Salmonella species isolated from goat feces as part of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Goat 2019 study, enteric microbe component. A total of 4917 fecal samples were collected from 332 operations, from September 2019-March 2020. Salmonella were isolated using standard enrichment and culture methods; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Biofilm production was assessed using a crystal violet assay and normalized to a positive control strain, and PCR was used to detect virulence genes. Overall, we detected a low prevalence (0.7%, n = 35/4917) of Salmonella in goat feces and identified a broad range of serotypes including S. Bareilly (35%) and a single rare S. Sharon. All isolates were pansusceptible to 14 antimicrobials except one, which was resistant to only tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 µg/mL). All strains were found to possess the majority of virulence determinants screened, and 40% (14 of 35) formed weak, moderate, or strong biofilm. We found a low prevalence of Salmonella, and characteristics of Salmonella in the U.S. goat population informs ongoing public health efforts to manage risk of animal food products and animal interactions.