A chromosome level genome assembly of longnose gar,Lepisosteus osseus
Mallik, R., Carlson, K. B., Wcisel, D. J., Fisk, M., Yoder, J. A., & Dornburg, A. (2022, December 22).
Abstract Holosteans (gars and bowfins) represent the sister lineage to teleost fishes, the latter being a clade that comprises over half of all living vertebrates and includes important models for comparative genomics and human health. A major distinction between the evolutionary history of teleosts and holosteans is that all teleosts experienced a genome duplication event in their early evolutionary history. As holostean genomes did not undergo a round of genome duplication, they have been heralded as a means to bridge teleost models to other vertebrate genomes. However, only three species of holosteans have been genome sequenced to date and sequencing of more species is needed to fill sequence sampling gaps and provide a broader comparative basis for understanding holostean genome evolution. Here we report the first high quality reference genome assembly and annotation of the longnose gar ( Lepisosteus osseus ). Our final assembly consists of 22,709 scaffolds with a total length of 945 bp with contig N 50 of 116.6 kb. Using BRAKER2, we annotated a total of 30,068 genes. Analysis of the repetitive regions of the genome reveals the genome to contain 29.1% transposable elements, and the longnose gar to be the only other known vertebrate outside of the spotted gar to contain CR1, L2, Rex1, and Babar. These results highlight the potential utility of holostean genomes for understanding the evolution of vertebrate repetitive elements and provide a critical reference for comparative genomic studies utilizing ray-finned fish models. Significance Over half of all living vertebrates are teleost fishes, including numerous experimental models such as zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) and medaka ( Oryzias latipes ). However, translating research in teleost models to other organisms such as humans is often challenged by the fact that teleosts experienced a genome duplication event in their early evolutionary history. Recent genome sequencing of three holosteans, the sister lineage to teleosts that did not experience a genome duplication event, has revealed these taxa to be critical for linking homologs between teleosts and other vertebrates. Sequencing of holostean genomes remains limited, thereby impeding further comparative genomic studies. Here we fill this sampling gap through the genomic sequencing of the longnose gar ( Lepisosteus osseus ). This annotated reference genome will provide a useful resource for a range of comparative genomic applications that span fields as diverse as immunogenetics, developmental biology, and the understanding of regulatory sequence evolution.