2023 journal article

Carboxylic Acid Amide but Not Quinone Outside Inhibitor Fungicide Resistance Mutations Show Clade-Specific Occurrence in Pseudoperonospora cubensis Causing Downy Mildew in Commercial and Wild Cucurbits

Phytopathology®.

By: K. D'Arcangelo n, E. Wallace n, T. Miles* & L. Quesada-Ocampo n

MeSH headings : Fungicides, Industrial / pharmacology; Amides / pharmacology; Carboxylic Acids / pharmacology; Plant Diseases; Oomycetes / genetics; Peronospora; Mutation; Strobilurins / pharmacology; Quinones / pharmacology
TL;DR: This study used population analyses to determine the occurrence of fungicide resistance mutations to CAA and QoI fungicides in host-adapted clade 1 and clade 2 P. cubensis isolates, and revealed that CAA-resistant genotypes occurred more prominently in clades 2 and 3, with more sensitive genotypes observed in clade1. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: ORCID
Added: January 13, 2023

Since its reemergence in 2004, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), has experienced significant changes in fungicide sensitivity. Presently, frequent fungicide applications are required to control the disease in cucumber due to the loss of host resistance. Carboxylic acid amides (CAA) and quinone outside inhibitors (QoI) are two fungicide groups used to control foliar diseases in cucurbits, including CDM. Resistance to these fungicides is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations. In this study, we used population analyses to determine the occurrence of fungicide resistance mutations to CAA and QoI fungicides in host-adapted clade 1 and clade 2 P. cubensis isolates. Our results revealed that CAA-resistant genotypes occurred more prominently in clade 2 isolates, with more sensitive genotypes observed in clade 1 isolates, while QoI resistance was widespread across isolates from both clades. We also determined that wild cucurbits can serve as reservoirs for P. cubensis isolates containing fungicide resistance alleles. Finally, we report that the G1105W substitution associated with CAA resistance was more prominent within clade 2 P. cubensis isolates while the G1105V resistance substitution and sensitivity genotypes were more prominent in clade 1 isolates. Our findings of clade-specific occurrence of fungicide resistance mutations highlight the importance of understanding the population dynamics of P. cubensis clades by crop and region to design effective fungicide programs and establish accurate baseline sensitivity to active ingredients in P. cubensis populations.