2018 journal article
A Sensing Contribution-Based Two-Layer Game for Channel Selection and Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Networks
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, 17(6), 3631–3640.
In cognitive radio (CR) networks, the secondary users (SUs) sense the spectrum licensed to the primary users (PUs) to identify and possibly transmit over temporarily unoccupied channels. Cooperative sensing was proposed to improve the sensing accuracy, but in heterogeneous scenarios, SUs do not contribute equally to the cooperative sensing result because they experience different received PU signal quality at their sensors. In this paper, a two-layer cooperative game is developed for distributed sensing and access in multichannel CR ad hoc networks, where the SUs’ transmission opportunities are commensurate with their sensing contributions, thus fostering cooperation and eliminating free-riders. Numerical results show that the proposed two-layer game is computationally efficient and outperforms previously investigated collaborative sensing and spectrum access approaches in heterogeneous multichannel CR scenarios in terms of energy efficiency, throughput, SU fairness, and complexity. Moreover, it is demonstrated that this game is robust to changes in the network topology and the number of SUs. Finally, a new physical-layer approach is proposed to distribute the network-level miss-detection constraints fairly among the interfering SUs for guaranteed PU protection and demonstrate the performance advantages of the AND-rule combining of spectrum sensing results for heterogeneous SUs.