2018 journal article
Animal models of endocrine disruption
BEST PRACTICE & RESEARCH CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, 32(3), 283–297.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that alter the structure and function of the endocrine system and may be contributing to disorders of the reproductive, metabolic, neuroendocrine and other complex systems. Typically, these outcomes cannot be modeled in cell-based or other simple systems necessitating the use of animal testing. Appropriate animal model selection is required to effectively recapitulate the human experience, including relevant dosing and windows of exposure, and ensure translational utility and reproducibility. While classical toxicology heavily relies on inbred rats and mice, and focuses on apical endpoints such as tumor formation or birth defects, EDC researchers have used a greater diversity of species to effectively model more subtle but significant outcomes such as changes in pubertal timing, mammary gland development, and social behaviors. Advances in genomics, neuroimaging and other tools are making a wider range of animal models more widely available to EDC researchers.