2023 journal article

Prevalence, differences, and potential correlation to age, sex, breed, coat color, iris color, and geographic location in naturally occurring refractive errors in the normal equine eye from Germany and North Carolina

Veterinary Ophthalmology.

By: L. Charnock*, M. Davidson n, D. Keys*, B. Gilger n & R. McMullen*

author keywords: ametropia; astigmatism; emmetropia; equine ophthalmology; refraction; streak retinoscopy
Source: ORCID
Added: January 25, 2023

Purpose To evaluate the normal refractive state in horses in NCSU and ECMR and determine the prevalence of naturally occurring refractive errors and their association with breed, age, coat color, iris color, sex, and geographic location. Methods Horses from NCSU (January 2009–November 2012) and ECMR (January 2013–September 2016) underwent ophthalmic examination and streak retinoscopy. Location, color, breed, sex, and iris color were recorded. Gross and net refractive values for each meridian (horizontal and vertical), spherical refraction, astigmatism for both eyes, and anisometry were recorded, and statistical analyses were performed. Results There is excellent agreement in refraction between the eyes of the same horse (ICC = 0.89). The median net horizontal (H), vertical (V), and spherical refraction for the total population (n = 690) were H: +0.25 D (min. −6.50 D, max. +2.34 D), V: +0.25 D (min. −7.13 D, max. +2.75D), and spherical: +0.25 D (min. −6.82 D, max. +2.17 D), all with interquartile ranges of −0.25 to 0.25 D. Emmetropia (>−0.50 D and <+0.50 D; >−0.75 D and <+0.75 D) was present in 769/1380 eyes (55.7%) and 926/1380 eyes (67.1%), respectively. Anisometropia was present in 86/690 horses (12.5%). Sex, iris color, and location were significantly associated with refraction values, whereas age, breed, and coat color were not. Conclusions Most eyes evaluated are emmetropic, or shifted myopically, with excellent agreement between eyes of the same horse. Sex, iris color, and geographic location appear to impact refraction in horses. Support None.