2022 journal article
Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion strengthened steel using gas atomized reaction synthesis powder
MATERIALS & DESIGN, 216.
Mechanically alloyed Fe-based alloys with oxide dispersion strengthening have largely dropped out of the marketplace due to high cost related to problems with complex and unreliable processing. Nevertheless, the desirable properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have motivated research on alternate processing routes aimed at improving processing simplicity and reliability. Powders produced by gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) consist of stable Fe-Y intermetallic phases and a Cr surface oxide layer that acts as a chemical reservoir during solid-state processing and heat treatment to form a high density of nano-scale oxides. This research explores the use of Fe GARS powders, with 15 wt% Cr with micro-alloyed additions of 0.15 wt% Y and 0.10% Ti, in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM), and evaluates the effectiveness of oxide dispersoid formation in the liquid melt pool. Additional oxygen was introduced by varying the LPBF chamber atmospheres using Ar, Ar + 1 wt% O, Ar + 5 wt% O, and air. Characterization of LPBF consolidated solids demonstrated the formation of a high density of nano-scale Y-Ti oxides in the build microstructures from the GARS precursor powders.