2023 journal article

In ovo HVT vaccination enhances cellular responses at hatch and addition of poly I:C offers minimal adjuvant effects

Vaccine.

By: A. Boone n, R. Kulkarni n, A. Cortes n, T. Villalobos*, J. Esandi* & I. Gimeno n

co-author countries: United States of America 🇺🇸
MeSH headings : Animals; Chickens; Poly I-C / pharmacology; Toll-Like Receptor 3; Interleukin-13; CD28 Antigens; Marek Disease; Herpesvirus 1, Meleagrid; Interferon-gamma; Vaccination / veterinary
Source: ORCID
Added: March 8, 2023

In ovo vaccination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) hastens immunocompetence in chickens and the recommended dose (RD) of 6080 plaque-forming-units (PFU) offers the most optimal effects. In previous studies conducted in egg-type chickens, in ovo vaccination with HVT enhanced lymphoproliferation, wing-web thickness with phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L), and increased spleen and lung interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) andToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) transcripts. Here, we evaluated the cellular mechanisms by which HVT-RD can hasten immunocompetence in one-day-old meat-type chickens, and also determined if HVT adjuvantation with a TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), could enhance vaccine-induced responses and provide dose-sparing effects. Compared to sham-inoculated chickens, HVT-RD significantly increased transcription of splenic TLR3 and IFN γ receptor 2 (R2), and lung IFN γ R2, while the splenic IL-13 transcription was found decreased. Additionally, these birds showed increased wing-web thickness following PHA-L inoculation. The thickness was due to an innate inflammatory cell population, CD3+ T cells, and edema. In another experiment, HVT-1/2 (3040 PFU) supplemented with 50 μg poly(I:C) [HVT-1/2 + poly(I:C)] was administered in ovo and immune responses were compared with those produced by HVT-RD, HVT-1/2, 50 μg poly(I:C), and sham-inoculated. Immunophenotyping of splenocytes showed HVT-RD induced a significantly higher frequency of CD4+, CD4+MHC-II+, CD8+CD44+, and CD4+CD28+ T cells compared to sham-inoculated chickens, and CD8+MHC-II+, CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+CD28+, and CD4+CD8+CD44+ T cells compared to all groups. Treatment groups, except HVT-1/2 + poly(I:C), had significantly higher frequencies of γδ T cells and all groups induced significantly higher frequencies of activated monocytes/macrophages, compared to sham-inoculated chickens. Poly(I:C)-induced dose-sparing effect was only observed in the frequency of activated monocytes/macrophages. No differences in the humoral responses were observed. Collectively, HVT-RD downregulated IL-13 transcripts (Th2 immune response) and had strong immunopotentiation effects on innate immune responses and the activation of T cells. However addition of poly(I:C) offered a minimal adjuvant/dose-sparing effect.