William Flowers

Works (45)

Updated: May 24th, 2024 05:00

2024 article

The effect of temperature-humidity index in different pregnancy stages on litter traits in Taiwan Landrace sows

Lin, K.-H., Flowers, B., Jiang, J., Knauer, M., & Lin, E.-C. (2024, May 5). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 102, pp. 20–20.

By: K. Lin, B. Flowers, J. Jiang, M. Knauer & E. Lin

author keywords: Landrace; litter traits; pregnancy stages,temperature-humidity index; Taiwan
Source: Web Of Science
Added: May 20, 2024

2023 article

Adrenomedullin Stimulates Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells Via CALCRL-AKT-TSC2-MTORC1 Cell Signaling Pathway

Liu, B., Paudel, S., Flowers, W. L., Piedrahita, J. A., & Wang, X. (2023, May). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 101.

By: B. Liu n, S. Paudel n, W. Flowers n, J. Piedrahita n & X. Wang n

author keywords: adrenomedullin; peri-implantation; pig conceptus
TL;DR: Results suggest that porcine ADM in histotroph act on its receptor component CALCRL to activate AKT-TSC2-MTOR, particularly MTORC1 signaling cascade, leading to elongation, migration and attachment of conceptuses. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 4, 2024

2023 article

Biological and Management Factors Affecting Colostrum Intake and Pre-Weaning Survival in Piglets

Jenkins, A. K., & Flowers, W. L. (2023, October 28). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 101, pp. 29–30.

By: A. Jenkins n & W. Flowers n

author keywords: colostrum intake; immunocrit; pre-weaning survival
TL;DR: Results indicate that low birth weight, lethargic, and chilled piglets were the most at-risk for low colostrum consumption and increased pre-weaning mortality. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: December 18, 2023

2023 article

Uterine histotroph and conceptus development: III. Adrenomedullin stimulates proliferation, migration and adhesion of porcine trophectoderm cells via AKT-TSC2-MTOR cell signaling pathway

Liu, B., Paudel, S., Flowers, W. L., Piedrahita, J. A., & Wang, X. (2023, April 10). AMINO ACIDS, Vol. 4.

By: B. Liu n, S. Paudel n, W. Flowers n, J. Piedrahita n & X. Wang n

author keywords: Adrenomedullin; Trophectoderm cells; MTOR; Pigs; Implantation
MeSH headings : Pregnancy; Female; Swine; Animals; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism; Adrenomedullin / pharmacology; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism; Cell Proliferation; Sirolimus / pharmacology
TL;DR: Results suggest that porcine ADM in histotroph acts on its receptor component CALCRL to activate AKT-TSC2-MTOR, particularly MTORC1 signaling cascade, leading to elongation, migration and attachment of conceptuses. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: April 24, 2023

2022 journal article

Factors affecting the production of quality ejaculates from boars

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 246.

By: W. Flowers n

author keywords: Spermatogenesis; Fertility
MeSH headings : Humans; Swine; Male; Animals; Semen Analysis / veterinary; Semen / physiology; Spermatozoa / physiology; Spermatogenesis / physiology; Sertoli Cells
TL;DR: The seasonal effect on depression in semen quality is the most significant factor affecting production of acceptable quality ejaculates after puberty and identification of genes associated with heat-tolerant phenotypes holds promise for addressing this challenge. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: January 17, 2023

2022 article

Litter-of-origin traits and their association with lifetime productivity in sows and boars

Flowers, W. L. (2022, March 25). MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT.

By: W. Flowers n

author keywords: fertility; litter-of-origin; swine
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: April 4, 2022

2020 journal article

Dietary lysine-to-energy ratios for managing growth and pubertal development in replacement gilts

APPLIED ANIMAL SCIENCE, 36(5), 701–714.

By: C. Lents*, C. Supakorn*, A. DeDecker, C. Phillips, R. Boyd n, J. Vallet*, G. Rohrer*, G. Foxcroft* ...

author keywords: gilt; growth; puberty; diet; lysine
TL;DR: Reducing SID lysine–to–ME ratios in gilt diets can increase the number of gilts within optimal BW range at first estrus, but overall pubertal development is delayed if ratios are reduced below 2.8 and 2.1 g in grower and finisher diets, respectively. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
7. Affordable and Clean Energy (OpenAlex)
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: October 26, 2020

2020 article

Effects of birth characteristics, nursing behaviors, and supplemental milk on piglet pre-weaning growth and survival

Clemons, C. M., & Flowers, W. (2020, November). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 98, pp. 213–213.

By: C. Clemons n & W. Flowers

author keywords: piglet; supplemental milk; pre-weaning growth and survival
Source: Web Of Science
Added: February 8, 2021

2020 article

Reproductive management of swine

ANIMAL AGRICULTURE: SUSTAINABILITY, CHALLENGES AND INNOVATIONS, pp. 283–297.

By: W. Flowers n

TL;DR: Birthweight and weaning weights appear to have strong positive relationship lifetime sperm and piglet production in boars and sows, respectively and delaying training for semen collection towards the end of their pubertal development appears to be beneficial for lifetime productivity in boar productivity. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: June 8, 2020

2020 journal article

Reproductive performance of sows associated with single, fixed-time insemination programs in commercial farms based on either average herd weaning-to-estrus intervals or postweaning estrous activity

APPLIED ANIMAL SCIENCE, 36(1), 100–107.

By: D. Dillard n & W. Flowers n

author keywords: swine; fertility; artificial insemination
TL;DR: Use of either proestrus or estrus as the criterion for intravaginal administration of triptorelin and the subsequent fixed-time AI in herds with extended or variable weaning-to-estrus intervals was effective in terms of maintaining reproductive performance equivalent to conventional AI strategies. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: June 22, 2020

2020 journal article

Transcriptome analysis identifies genes and co-expression networks underlying heat tolerance in pigs

BMC GENETICS, 21(1).

By: Y. He n, C. Maltecca n, F. Tiezzi n, E. Soto n & W. Flowers n

Contributors: Y. He n, C. Maltecca n, F. Tiezzi n, E. Soto n & W. Flowers n

author keywords: Heat stress; Boar sperm quality; Gene expression; Heat tolerance
MeSH headings : Animals; Gene Ontology; Gene Regulatory Networks; Heat-Shock Response / genetics; Male; Semen Analysis; Swine / genetics; Thermotolerance / genetics; Transcriptome
TL;DR: The sensitivity of semen to heat stress is utilized to discriminate the heat-tolerance ability of pigs and provide potential biomarkers for future investigations on the reproductive performance of pigs. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, ORCID
Added: May 18, 2020

2018 journal article

Design and biological effects of a vaginally administered gel containing the GnRH agonist, triptorelin, for synchronizing ovulation in swine

THERIOGENOLOGY, 112, 44–52.

By: R. Knox*, K. Stewart*, W. Flowers n, M. Swanson*, S. Webel* & R. Kraeling

author keywords: Al; Fertility; OvuGel; Ovulation; Pig; Synchronization
MeSH headings : Administration, Intravaginal; Animals; Estrus Synchronization / methods; Female; Fertility / drug effects; Fertility Agents, Female; Insemination, Artificial / methods; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Ovulation / drug effects; Ovulation Induction / methods; Ovulation Induction / veterinary; Pregnancy; Swine; Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage; Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies / chemistry; Weaning
TL;DR: A novel gel formulation was selected for intravaginal delivery of the GnRH agonist (triptorelin) for synchronizing ovulation in pigs and the optimum time to give a single fixed time AI (SFT-AI) after administration of 200 μg of triptorelin in 1.2% gel (OvuGel®) at 96 h after weaning was tested. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2018 journal article

High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) deficiency in pigs leads to dwarfism, abnormal fetal resource allocation, and cryptorchidism

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(21), 5420–5425.

By: J. Chung n, X. Zhang n, B. Collins n, R. Sper n, K. Gleason n, S. Simpson n, S. Koh n, J. Sommer n ...

author keywords: HMGA2; dwarfism; swine; gene editing; organ size
MeSH headings : Animals; Cryptorchidism / etiology; Cryptorchidism / pathology; Dwarfism / etiology; Dwarfism / pathology; Female; Fetal Diseases / etiology; Fetal Diseases / pathology; Genotype; HMGA2 Protein / deficiency; HMGA2 Protein / genetics; Litter Size; Male; Nuclear Transfer Techniques / veterinary; Pregnancy; Reproduction; Swine; Swine Diseases / etiology; Swine Diseases / pathology
TL;DR: The results show that the effect of HMGA2 with respect to growth regulation is highly conserved among mammals and opens up the possibility of regulating body and organ size in a variety of mammalian species including food and companion animals. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2017 journal article

Supplementation of Maternal Diets with Docosahexaenoic Acid and Methylating Vitamins Impacts Growth and Development of Fetuses from Malnourished Gilts

Current Developments in Nutrition, 2(3).

By: H. Lima n, X. Lin n, S. Jacobi n, C. Man n, J. Sommer n, W. Flowers n, A. Blikslager n, L. Gonzalez n, J. Odle n

Contributors: H. Lima n, X. Lin n, S. Jacobi n, C. Man n, J. Sommer n, W. Flowers n, A. Blikslager n, L. Gonzalez n, J. Odle n

author keywords: choline; B-vitamins; epigenetics; intrauterine growth restriction; nutrient restriction; low birth weight
TL;DR: Despite the mobilization of maternal stores, malnourished litters displayed reduced brain development that was fully mitigated by micronutrient supplementation. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
2. Zero Hunger (OpenAlex)
Sources: Web Of Science, Crossref, NC State University Libraries, ORCID
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Use of heterospermic inseminations and paternity testing to evaluate the relative contributions of common sperm traits and seminal plasma proteins in boar fertility

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 174, 123–131.

By: W. Flowers n, F. Deller & K. Stewart*

author keywords: Seminal plasma proteins; Sperm quality; Fertility; Boars
MeSH headings : Animals; Female; Fertility / genetics; Fertility / physiology; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Male; Pregnancy; Semen / physiology; Spermatozoa / physiology; Swine / genetics; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that heterospermic inseminations and subsequent paternity testing is an effective technique for defining relationships between common semen quality tests and fertility, especially in situations where reproductive performance of all the boars is high. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 article

Effect of dietary copper amount and source on copper metabolism and oxidative stress of weanling pigs in short-term feeding

Huang, Y. L., Ashwell, M. S., Fry, R. S., Lloyd, K. E., Flowers, W. L., & Spears, J. W. (2015, June). JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 93, pp. 2948–2955.

By: Y. Huang*, M. Ashwell n, R. Fry n, K. Lloyd n, W. Flowers n & J. Spears n

author keywords: copper; copper metabolism; oxidative stress; pigs
MeSH headings : Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Antioxidants / metabolism; Chlorides / pharmacology; Copper / metabolism; Copper Sulfate / pharmacology; Diet / veterinary; Dietary Supplements; Duodenum / metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation; Ileum / metabolism; Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism; Jejunum / metabolism; Liver / metabolism; Male; Malondialdehyde / metabolism; Oxidative Stress / drug effects; RNA, Messenger / genetics; RNA, Messenger / metabolism; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Feeding weanling pigs increased Cu resulted in modulation of duodenal and liver at the transcription level, and when fed at 225 mg Cu/kg diet, TBCC may cause less oxidative stress in the duodenum than CuSO4. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 review

Factors Affecting the Efficient Production of Boar Sperm

[Review of ]. REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 50, 25–30.

By: W. Flowers n

MeSH headings : Animals; Animals, Newborn / physiology; Birth Weight; Environment; Male; Nutritional Requirements; Nutritional Status; Photoperiod; Spermatogenesis / physiology; Spermatozoa / physiology; Swine; Temperature; Weaning
TL;DR: Birthweight appears to hold promise as a prospective screening tool as it appears to have a strong positive relationship with adult sperm production, and several deficiencies in several of these areas are common in commercial studs and have additive, negative effects on sperm production. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Blocking Ligand Occupancy of the alpha V beta 3 Integrin Inhibits the Development of Nephropathy in Diabetic Pigs

ENDOCRINOLOGY, 155(12), 4665–4675.

By: L. Maile*, W. Busby*, K. Gollahon*, W. Flowers n, N. Garbacik n, S. Garbacik n, K. Stewart n, T. Nichols* ...

MeSH headings : Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology; Diabetic Nephropathies / metabolism; Diabetic Nephropathies / pathology; Glomerular Basement Membrane / pathology; Integrin alphaVbeta3 / antagonists & inhibitors; Integrin alphaVbeta3 / metabolism; Male; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Podocytes / pathology; Proteinuria / etiology; Swine
TL;DR: Administration of an antibody that inhibits activation of the β3-subunit of αVβ3 that is induced by hyperglycemia attenuates proteinuria and early histologic changes of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that it may have utility in preventing the progression of this disease complication. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Effect of gonadotropin releasing factor suppression with an immunological on growth performance, estrus activity, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of market gilts

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 92(10), 4719–4724.

By: B. Bohrer*, W. Flowers n, J. Kyle*, S. Johnson*, V. King*, J. Spruill*, D. Thompson*, A. Schroeder*, D. Boler*

author keywords: estrus suppression; gilt; gonadotropin releasing factor; Improvest
MeSH headings : Animals; Body Composition / drug effects; Body Weight / physiology; Estrus; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology; Meat / standards; Sexual Maturation / drug effects; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Data suggest market gilts treated with an anti-GnRF analog had suppressed estrus and episodical changes in ADFI, while they had improved feed efficiency, increased ADG, and increased back fat depth when compared with gilts without anAnti-GNRF analog treatment. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 journal article

Effect of dietary selenium on boar sperm quality

Animal Reproduction Science, 138(3-4), 268–275.

By: K. Lovercamp n, K. Stewart n, X. Lin n & W. Flowers n

author keywords: Boar; Selenium; Sperm; Lipid peroxidation; Glutathione peroxidise
MeSH headings : Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / drug effects; Animals; Cell Shape / drug effects; Dietary Supplements; Fatty Acids / analysis; Fatty Acids / metabolism; Glutathione Peroxidase / analysis; Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism; Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects; Male; Selenium / administration & dosage; Selenium / analysis; Semen / chemistry; Semen / cytology; Semen / drug effects; Semen / metabolism; Semen Analysis / veterinary; Semen Preservation / veterinary; Swine / metabolism; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Results indicate that supplementing a basal diet with organic or inorganic selenium did not affect semen quantity or sperm quality in fresh ejaculates nor did it appear to have any beneficial latent effects in extended semen stored post collection. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Sources: Web Of Science, Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 journal article

Effect of social ranks and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows1

Journal of Animal Science, 91(12), 5848–5858.

By: Y. Zhao n, W. Flowers n, A. Saraiva n, K. Yeum* & S. Kim n

Contributors: Y. Zhao n, W. Flowers n, A. Saraiva n, K. Yeum* & S. Kim n

author keywords: oxidative stress; reproductive performance; social rank; sow
MeSH headings : Aggression; Animals; Body Weight; Colostrum / chemistry; Female; Housing, Animal; Immunoglobulin G / blood; Immunoglobulin G / chemistry; Immunoglobulin M / blood; Immunoglobulin M / chemistry; Oxidative Stress / physiology; Pregnancy; Reproduction / physiology; Social Dominance; Swine / blood; Swine / immunology; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: The reproductive performance of sows from all of the social ranks was related to their oxidative stress status during gestation and lactation, and the immune status did not differ between sows housed in gestational crates (CON), pens (HR + MR + LR). (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 journal article

TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Sperm characteristics that limit success of fertilization

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 91(7), 3022–3029.

By: W. Flowers n

author keywords: fertility; livestock; male; sperm
MeSH headings : Animals; Cattle / physiology; Female; Fertility; Fertilization; Male; Sheep, Domestic / physiology; Sperm-Ovum Interactions; Spermatozoa / physiology; Sus scrofa / physiology
TL;DR: Current industry estimates of reproductive performance for cattle, sheep, and swine operations indicate that males contribute significantly to fertility failures and emphasizes the need for additional research in identifying characteristics of sperm that compromise fertilization. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 journal article

Amount and source of dietary copper affects small intestine morphology, duodenal lipid peroxidation, hepatic oxidative stress, and mRNA expression of hepatic copper regulatory proteins in weanling pigs

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 90(9), 3112–3119.

By: R. Fry n, M. Ashwell n, K. Lloyd n, A. O'Nan n, W. Flowers n, K. Stewart n, J. Spears n

author keywords: copper; copper proteins; mucosal histology; oxidative stress; pigs
MeSH headings : Animals; Copper / metabolism; Copper / pharmacology; Duodenum / drug effects; Duodenum / metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects; Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects; Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects; Liver / metabolism; Male; Malondialdehyde / metabolism; Oxidative Stress / drug effects; RNA, Messenger / genetics; RNA, Messenger / metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary; Swine / blood; Swine / metabolism
TL;DR: Results of this study indicated that, when fed at 225 mg Cu/kg diet, TBCC may cause less oxidative stress in the duodenum than CuSO(4), and feeding weanling pigs increased Cu resulted in modulation of certain Cu transporters and chaperones at the transcription level. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 journal article

Effects of stress associated with weaning on the adaptive immune system in pigs

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 90(2), 649–656.

By: A. Kick n, M. Tompkins n, W. Flowers n, C. Whisnant n & G. Almond n

author keywords: cortisol; immune cell; pig; weaning
MeSH headings : Adaptive Immunity / immunology; Animals; Animals, Suckling / blood; Animals, Suckling / immunology; B-Lymphocytes / immunology; Blood Cell Count / veterinary; Body Weight / immunology; Female; Flow Cytometry / veterinary; Hydrocortisone / blood; Least-Squares Analysis; Male; Neutrophils / immunology; Random Allocation; Swine / blood; Swine / immunology; T-Lymphocytes / immunology; Weaning
TL;DR: Early weaning did not negatively affect the adaptive immunological competence of pigs as determined by changes in populations of immune cells, and lymphocyte concentrations were less in weaned pigs on the day after weaning than in pigs remaining on the sow or weaned at a younger age. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
3. Good Health and Well-being (OpenAlex)
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 journal article

Breed differences in pig temperament scores during a performance test and their phenotypic relationship with performance

LIVESTOCK SCIENCE, 136(2-3), 93–101.

By: C. Yoder n, C. Maltecca n, J. Cassady n, W. Flowers n, S. Price & M. See n

Contributors: C. Yoder n, C. Maltecca n, J. Cassady n, W. Flowers n, S. Price & M. See n

author keywords: Breed; Performance; Pigs; Temperament
TL;DR: Nucleus populations of Chester White, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars and gilts were used to estimate breed differences in temperament and the relationship with performance, and vocal score was best described as two categories, vocal or non-vocal. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, ORCID
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 journal article

Effect of season on fresh and cryopreserved stallion semen

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 119(3-4), 219–227.

By: N. Wrench n, C. Pinto*, G. Klinefelter*, D. Dix*, W. Flowers n & C. Farin n

author keywords: Stallion; Cryopreservation; SP22; mRNA; Season; Semen
MeSH headings : Actins / genetics; Animals; Breeding; Cryopreservation / veterinary; Horses; Hot Temperature; Male; Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis; RNA, Messenger / analysis; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Seasons; Semen Preservation / veterinary; Sperm Motility; Spermatozoa / abnormalities; Spermatozoa / chemistry; Spermatozoa / physiology
TL;DR: Based on data analyzed, semen collected in the Northern Hemisphere between March and June may be best suited for cryopreservation. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 journal article

Endocrine, ovulatory and reproductive characteristics of sows treated with an intravaginal GnRH agonist

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 120(1-4), 112–119.

By: K. Stewart n, W. Flowers n, G. Rampacek*, D. Greger, M. Swanson & H. Hafs

author keywords: Sows-GnRH; Ovulation; Vagina; Weaning
MeSH headings : Administration, Intravaginal; Animals; Endocrine System / drug effects; Endocrine System / physiology; Estradiol / blood; Estrus / blood; Estrus / drug effects; Estrus / metabolism; Estrus Synchronization / drug effects; Estrus Synchronization / methods; Female; Fertility Agents, Female / administration & dosage; Fertility Agents, Female / pharmacology; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists; Luteolytic Agents / administration & dosage; Luteolytic Agents / pharmacology; Ovulation / drug effects; Ovulation / physiology; Ovulation Induction / methods; Ovulation Induction / veterinary; Pregnancy; Reproduction / drug effects; Reproduction / physiology; Swine / physiology; Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage; Triptorelin Pamoate / pharmacology
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that 100microg of triptorelin administered intravaginally in a least 1.2% methyl cellulose gel induced a normal preovulatory LH surge and synchronized time of ovulation in weaned sows. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Effect of season on sperm membrane protein 22 and selected mRNAs in fresh and cryopreserved stallion sperm

Animal Reproduction Science, 107(3-4), 357.

By: N. Wrench n, C. Pinto n, G. Klinefelter*, D. Dix*, W. Flowers n & C. Farin n

Source: Crossref
Added: August 28, 2020

2008 article

Genetic and phenotypic variation in reproductive traits of AI boars

Flowers, W. L. (2008, November). THERIOGENOLOGY, Vol. 70, pp. 1297–1303.

By: W. Flowers n

author keywords: Boars; Sexual behaviour; Sperm production; Fertility; Genetics
MeSH headings : Animals; Fertility / genetics; Genetic Variation; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Male; Reproduction / genetics; Reproduction / physiology; Sexual Behavior, Animal; Swine / genetics; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Current prospects for influencing sperm production, boar fertility, and mounting behaviours through genetic selection are viewed as being good, moderate to low, and poor, respectively. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Porcine sperm zona binding ability as an indicator of fertility

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 104(1), 69–82.

By: E. Collins, W. Flowers n, R. Shanks & D. Miller*

author keywords: pig-fertility; fertilization; heterospermic insemination; sperm; zona pellucida
MeSH headings : Animals; Female; Fertility / physiology; Fertilization in Vitro; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Litter Size; Male; Ovum / cytology; Ovum / physiology; Predictive Value of Tests; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, Animal; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sperm-Ovum Interactions / physiology; Spermatozoa / cytology; Spermatozoa / physiology; Swine; Zona Pellucida / physiology
TL;DR: Results suggest that zona binding ability is not an accurate predictor of fertilizing ability when used alone; however, when coupled with other sperm assessments, fertility may be predicted successfully. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Urinary excretion of collagen degradation markers by sows during postpartum uterine involution

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 85(1-2), 131–145.

By: B. Belstra n, W. Flowers n, W. Croom n, J. DeGroot* & M. See n

Contributors: B. Belstra n, W. Flowers n, W. Croom n, J. DeGroot* & M. See n

author keywords: embryo mortality; lactation; postpartum; sow; uterine involution
MeSH headings : Amino Acids / urine; Animals; Biomarkers / urine; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Collagen / urine; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Female; Puerperal Disorders / urine; Puerperal Disorders / veterinary; Swine; Swine Diseases / urine; Uterine Diseases / urine; Uterine Diseases / veterinary
TL;DR: Overall, data from experiments I and II indicate that urinary HP does increase postpartum in a pattern temporally consistent with uterine involution, and this data is consistent with a post partum increase of soft tissue collagen catabolism. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
3. Good Health and Well-being (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
5. Gender Equality (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Effect of dietary trace mineral concentration and source (inorganic vs. chelated) on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion in pigs from weaning through finishing

Journal of Animal Science, 82(7), 2140–2147.

By: B. Creech n, J. Spears n, W. Flowers n, G. Hill*, K. Lloyd n, T. Armstrong n, T. Engle n

MeSH headings : Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Chelating Agents / pharmacology; Copper / administration & dosage; Copper / metabolism; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feces / chemistry; Female; Iron / administration & dosage; Iron / metabolism; Manganese / administration & dosage; Manganese / metabolism; Nutritional Status; Random Allocation; Swine / growth & development; Swine / metabolism; Trace Elements / administration & dosage; Trace Elements / metabolism; Weaning; Zinc / administration & dosage; Zinc / metabolism
TL;DR: Reducing the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe typically supplemented to pig diets will greatly decrease fecal mineral excretion without negatively affecting pig performance from weaning through development. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Factors affecting temporal relationships between estrus and ovulation in commercial sow farms

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 84(3-4), 377–394.

By: B. Belstra n, W. Flowers n & M. See n

Contributors: B. Belstra n, W. Flowers n & M. See n

author keywords: estrus; ovulation; insemination; seasonal infertility; sows
MeSH headings : Animal Husbandry / methods; Animals; Estrus / physiology; Estrus Detection; Female; Genotype; Insemination, Artificial / physiology; Lactation / physiology; Least-Squares Analysis; Male; Ovulation / physiology; Ovulation Detection / veterinary; Parity / physiology; Pregnancy; Seasons; Swine / physiology; Time Factors; Weaning
TL;DR: The data indicate that factors other than weaning-to-estrus interval, such as season and parity, can significantly alter DE and EOI, however, the effects of season and weaning -to-ESTrus interval on DE andEOI can be inconsistent among different farms. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma minerals, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher swine fed diets with levels of trace minerals lower than common industry levels

Journal of Swine Health and Production, 12(5), 237–241.

By: E. Van Heugten, P. O'Quinn, D. Funderburke, W. Flowers & J. Spears

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Variability in relationships between semen quality and estimates of in vivo and in vitro fertility in boars

ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 81(1-2), 97–113.

By: J. Popwell* & W. Flowers n

author keywords: boar; semen quality; fertilization
MeSH headings : Acrosome / ultrastructure; Animals; Female; Fertility; Fertilization in Vitro / veterinary; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Litter Size; Male; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Semen / physiology; Sperm Head / ultrastructure; Sperm Motility; Sperm Tail / ultrastructure; Sperm-Ovum Interactions; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that simply relying on the means of common semen quality estimates from some boars has limited value in terms of being used as a prospective indicator of their in vivo or in vitro fertility. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 journal article

Iron methionine as a source of iron for the neonatal pig

NUTRITION RESEARCH, 22(10), 1209–1217.

By: E. Kegley*, J. Spears n, W. Flowers n & W. Schoenherr n

author keywords: iron; anemia; pig
TL;DR: Iron methionine given orally was a safe, effective source of Fe, but a single oral dose of FeMet was not equivalent to injectable Fe, and utilization was greatest when given at 3 d compared to at birth. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
3. Good Health and Well-being (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 journal article

Long-term effects of boron supplementation on reproductive characteristics and bone mechanical properties in gilts

Journal of Animal Science, 80(1), 154–161.

By: T. Armstrong n, W. Flowers n, J. Spears n & F. Nielsen*

MeSH headings : Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Biomechanical Phenomena; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / drug effects; Bone and Bones / physiology; Boron / pharmacology; Dietary Supplements; Female; Male; Random Allocation; Reproduction / drug effects; Reproduction / physiology; Swine / metabolism; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Results indicate that B may have beneficial effects upon reproductive and bone characteristics in gilts, which may be related to increased bone turnover in B-supplemented gilts. (via Semantic Scholar)
Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1999 journal article

Control of the weaning-to-estrus interval in sows using gonadotropins and prostaglandins during lactation

Journal of Animal Science, 77(9), 2533–2539.

By: T. Armstrong n, W. Flowers n & J. Britt n

MeSH headings : Animals; Chorionic Gonadotropin / pharmacology; Corpus Luteum / drug effects; Dinoprost / pharmacology; Estrus / drug effects; Female; Lactation; Ovulation Induction; Progesterone / pharmacology; Swine / physiology; Time Factors; Weaning
TL;DR: Results indicate that it is possible to induce ovulation immediately after farrowing, using a single injection of hCG, and this strategy can be used to uncouple weaning from the resumption of reproductive activity. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 journal article

Improving boar fertility

Advances in Pork Production, 9(1998), 1–11.

By: B. Flowers

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 journal article

New ideas on boar and sow fertility examined

Feedstuffs, 70(35), 12–131923.

By: W. Flowers

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 journal article

Genetically engineered large animal model for studying cone photoreceptor survival and degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, 15(10), 965–970.

By: R. Petters n, C. Alexander n, K. Wells n, E. Collins n, . Sommer n, M. Blanton n, G. Rojas n, Y. Hao* ...

author keywords: transgenic swine; retinal degeneration; rhodopsin mutation; night blindness; eye disease
MeSH headings : Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Blotting, Southern; Disease Models, Animal; Electroretinography; Embryo Transfer; Gene Expression Regulation / genetics; Genetic Engineering; Microscopy, Electron; Molecular Sequence Data; Phenotype; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retina / pathology; Retina / physiopathology; Retina / ultrastructure; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / physiopathology; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / ultrastructure; Retinal Degeneration / physiopathology; Retinitis Pigmentosa / genetics; Retinitis Pigmentosa / physiopathology; Rhodopsin / chemistry; Rhodopsin / genetics; Swine / embryology; Swine / genetics; Transgenes
TL;DR: These transgenic pigs that express a mutated rhodopsin gene will provide a large animal model for study of the protracted phase of cone degeneration found in RP and for preclinical treatment trials. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 conference paper

Management of boars for efficient semen production

In R. D. G. G. R. Foxcroft & C. Doberska (Eds.), Control of pig reproduction V: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Pig Reproduction, held at Congress Centre Rolduc, Kerkrade, The Netherlands, June 1997 (Journal of reproduction and fertility. Supplement; no. 52) (Vol. 52, pp. 67–78).

By: W. Flowers

Ed(s): R. G. R. Foxcroft & C. Doberska

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 chapter

Management of reproduction

In M. A. V. J. Wiseman & J. P. Chadwick (Eds.), Progress in pig science (pp. 383–405). Thrumpton, Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.

By: W. Flowers

Ed(s): M. J. Wiseman & J. Chadwick

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1992 journal article

Artificial insemination in swine

Agri-Practice, 13(2), 36.

By: W. Flowers

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1992 journal article

REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE AND ESTIMATES OF LABOR REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH COMBINATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL-INSEMINATION AND NATURAL SERVICE IN SWINE

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 70(3), 615–621.

By: W. Flowers n & H. Alhusen

author keywords: PIGS; REPRODUCTION; ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION; NATURAL MATING
MeSH headings : Age Factors; Animals; Breeding / economics; Copulation; Female; Insemination, Artificial / veterinary; Litter Size; Parity; Random Allocation; Reproduction; Swine / physiology
TL;DR: Results from this study demonstrate that gilts and sows responded differently to combinations of NS andAI in terms of reproductive performance and differences in labor requirements per sow or gilt between NS and AI matings were dependent on parity and daily breeding demands. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

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