Jean Ristaino

Genomic Sciences

Works (85)

2019 | journal article

Extraction of Plant DNA by Microneedle Patch for Rapid Detection of Plant Diseases

ACS NANO, 13(6), 6540–6549.

By: R. Paul, A. Saville, J. Hansel, Y. Ye, C. Ball, A. Williams, X. Chang, G. Chen ...

Source: Web Of Science
Added: July 15, 2019

2019 | article

Phytophthora acaciae sp. nov., a new species causing gummosis of black wattle in Brazil

MYCOLOGIA.

By: T. Albuquerque Alves, D. Tessmann, K. Ivors, J. Ristaino & A. Santos

Source: Web Of Science
Added: May 13, 2019

2018 | journal article

A Risk Analysis of Precision Agriculture Technology to Manage Tomato Late Blight

SUSTAINABILITY, 10(9).

By: Y. Liu, M. Langemeier, I. Small, L. Joseph, W. Fry, J. Ristaino, A. Saville, B. Gramig, P. Preckel

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: October 29, 2018

2018 | journal article

Large sub-clonal variation in Phytophthora infestans from recent severe late blight epidemics in India

Scientific Reports, 8.

By: T. Dey, A. Saville, K. Myers, S. Tewari, D. Cooke, S. Tripathy, W. Fry, J. Ristaino, S. Roy

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2018 | journal article

Population structure and migration of the tobacco blue mold pathogen, Peronospora tabacina, into North America and Europe

Molecular Ecology, 27(3), 737–751.

By: M. Blanco-Meneses, I. Carbone & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2017 | journal article

Population structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica reveals shared haplotype diversity with Southeast Asian populations

Phytopathology, 107(12), 1541–1548.

By: A. Saville, M. Charles, S. Chavan, M. Munoz, L. Gomez-Alpizar & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

"What a painfully interesting subject": Charles Darwin's studies of potato late blight

BioScience, 66(12), 1035–1045.

By: J. Ristaino & D. Pfister

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

Ecosystem services connect environmental change to human health outcomes

Ecohealth, 13(3), 443–449.

By: B. Bayles, K. Brauman, J. Adkins, B. Allan, A. Ellis, T. Goldberg, C. Golden, D. Grigsby-Toussaint ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

First report of gummosis caused by Phytophthora frigida on black wattle in Brazil.

Plant Disease, 100(11), 2336–2336.

By: T. Alves, D. Tessmann, K. Ivors, J. Ristaino & A. Santos

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

Genetic modification for disease resistance: A position paper

Food Security, 8(4), 865–870.

By: P. Scott, J. Thomson, D. Grzywacz, S. Savary, R. Strange, J. Ristaino, L. Korsten

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

Genetic variation within clonal lineages of Phytophthora infestans revealed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and implications for late blight epidemiology

PLoS One, 11(11).

By: Z. Hansen, K. Everts, W. Fry, A. Gevens, N. Grunwald, B. Gugino, D. Johnson, S. Johnson ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

Genomic characterization of a South American phytophthora hybrid mandates reassessment of the geographic origins of phytophthora infestans

Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(2), 478–491.

By: M. Martin, F. Vieira, S. Ho, N. Wales, M. Schubert, A. Seguin-Orlando, J. Ristaino, M. Gilbert

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 | journal article

Historic late blight outbreaks caused by a widespread dominant lineage of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary

PLoS One, 11(12).

By: A. Saville, M. Martin & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 | journal article

Five reasons to consider Phytophthora infestans a reemerging pathogen

Phytopathology, 105(7), 966–981.

By: W. Fry, P. Birch, H. Judelson, N. Grunwald, G. Danies, K. Everts, A. Gevens, B. Gugino ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 | journal article

Fungicide sensitivity of US genotypes of Phytophthora infestans to six oomycete-targeted compounds

Plant Disease, 99(5), 659–666.

By: A. Saville, K. Graham, N. Grunwald, K. Myers, W. Fry & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 | journal article

Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora 1c clade species

Current Genetics, 61(4), 567–577.

By: E. Lassiter, C. Russ, C. Nusbaum, Q. Zeng, A. Saville, R. Olarte, I. Carbone, C. Hu ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 | review

The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology

Molecular Plant Pathology.

By: S. Kamoun, O. Furzer, J. Jones, H. Judelson, G. Ali, R. Dalio, S. Roy, L. Schena ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 | journal article

An ephemeral sexual population of phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada

PLoS One, 9(12).

By: G. Danies, K. Myers, M. Mideros, S. Restrepo, F. Martin, D. Cooke, C. Smart, J. Ristaino ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 | journal article

Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant new world Phytophthora infestans

Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31(6), 1414–1420.

By: M. Martin, S. Ho, N. Wales, J. Ristaino & M. Gilbert

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 | journal article

Evidence for presence of the founder Ia mtDNA haplotype of Phytophthora infestans in 19th century potato tubers from the Rothamsted archives

Plant Pathology, 62(3), 492–500.

By: J. Ristaino, C. Hu & B. Fitt

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 | journal article

Reconstructing genome evolution in historic samples of the Irish potato famine pathogen

Nature Communications, 4.

By: M. Martin, E. Cappellini, J. Samaniego, M. Zepeda, P. Campos, A. Seguin-Orlando, N. Wales, L. Orlando ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 | journal article

The 2009 late blight pandemic in the eastern United States - Causes and results

Plant Disease, 97(3), 296–306.

By: W. Fry, M. McGrath, A. Seaman, T. Zitter, A. McLeod, G. Danies, I. Small, K. Myers ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | journal article

A lucid key to the corn on species of Phytophthora

Plant Disease, 96(6), 897–903.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | personal communication

A rebuttal to the letter to the editor concerning Defining species boundaries in the genus Phytophthora: the case of Phytophthora andina'

Plant Pathology.

By: G. Forbes, J. Ristaino, R. Oliva & W. Flier

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | journal article

A universal microarray detection method for identification of multiple Phytophthora spp. using padlock probes

Phytopathology, 102(6), 635–645.

By: K. Sikora, E. Verstappen, O. Mendes, C. Schoen, J. Ristaino & P. Bonants

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | journal article

Parallels in intercellular communication in oomycete and fungal pathogens of plants and humans

PLoS Pathogens, 8(12).

By: S. Lee, J. Ristaino & J. Heitman

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | journal article

Recent genotypes of Phytophthora infestans in the Eastern United States reveal clonal populations and reappearance of mefenoxam sensitivity

Plant Disease, 96(9), 1323–1330.

By: C. Hu, F. Perez, R. Donahoo, A. McLeod, K. Myers, K. Ivors, G. Secor, P. Roberts ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 | journal article

Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci identified from a small insert genomic library for Peronospora tabacina

Mycologia, 104(3), 633–640.

By: R. Trigiano, P. Wadl, D. Dean, D. Hadziabdic, B. Scheffler, F. Runge, S. Telle, M. Thines, J. Ristaino, O. Spring

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 | journal article

DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer

Molecular Ecology Resources, 11(6), 1002–1011.

By: G. Robideau, A. Cock, M. Coffey, H. Voglmayr, H. Brouwer, K. Bala, D. Chitty, N. Desaulniers ...

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 | journal article

Detection and quantification of Peronospora tabacina using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay

Plant Disease, 95(6), 673–682.

By: M. Blanco-Meneses & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 | journal article

The Potato Late Blight pathogen in Ireland, 1846: reconnecting Irish specimens with the Moore-Berkeley correspondence

Archives of Natural History, 38(2), 356–359.

By: E. Nelson & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 | journal article

Genetic structure of phytophthora infestans populations in China indicates multiple migration events

Phytopathology, 100(10), 997–1006.

By: L. Guo, X. Zhu, C. Hu & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 | journal article

Phytophthora andina sp nov., a newly identified heterothallic pathogen of solanaceous hosts in the Andean highlands

Plant Pathology, 59(4), 613–625.

By: R. Oliva, L. Kroon, G. Chacon, W. Flier, J. Ristaino & G. Forbes

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 | journal article

Effect of prior tillage and soil fertility amendments on dispersal of Phytophthora capsici and infection of pepper

European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120(3), 273–287.

By: B. Liu, M. Gumpertz, S. Hu & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 | journal article

Fitness of isolates of Phytophthora capsici resistant to mefenoxam from squash and pepper fields in North Carolina

Plant Disease, 92(10), 1439–1443.

By: A. Cafe & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 | journal article

Phylogenetic relationships of Phytophthora andina, a new species from the highlands of Ecuador that is closely related to the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

Mycologia, 100(4), 590–602.

By: L. Gomez-Alpizar, C. Hu, R. Oliva, G. Forbes & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 | book

Pioneering women in plant pathology

St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press.

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 | journal article

An Andean origin of Phytophthora infestans inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(9), 3306–3311.

By: L. Gomez-Alpizar, I. Carbone & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 | journal article

Effect of organnic, sustainable, and conventional management strategies in grower fields on soil physical, chemical, and biological factors and the incidence of Southern blight

Applied Soil Ecology, 37(3), 202–214.

By: B. Liu, C. Tu, S. Hu, M. Gumpertz & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 | journal article

Identification of the tobacco blue mold pathogen, Peronospora tabacina, by polymerase chain reaction

Plant Disease, 91(6), 685–691.

By: J. Ristaino, A. Johnson, M. Blanco-Meneses & B. Liu

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 | journal article

Long-term effects of organic and synthetic soil fertility amendments on soil microbial communities and the development of southern blight

Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39(9), 2302–2316.

By: B. Liu, M. Gumpertz, S. Hu & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2006 | journal article

Mitochondrial genome sequences and molecular evolution of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans

Current Genetics (Online), 49(1), 39–46.

By: C. Avila-Adame, L. Gomez-Alpizar, V. Zismann, K. Jones, C. Buell & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2006 | journal article

Soil microbial biomass and activity in organic tomato farming systems: Effects of organic inputs and straw mulching

Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38(2), 247–255.

By: C. Tu, J. Ristaino & S. Hu

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 | journal article

Identity of the mtDNA haplotype(s) of Phytophthora infestans in historical specimens from the Irish Potato Famine

Mycological Research, 108(May-04), 471–479.

By: K. May & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2003 | chapter

Phytophthora blight on bell pepper

In Compendium of pepper diseases. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Effect of synthetic and organic soil fertility amendments on southern blight, soil microbial communities, and yield of processing tomatoes

Phytopathology, 92(2), 181–189.

By: L. Bulluck & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Influences of organic and synthetic soil fertility amendments on nematode trophic groups and community dynamics under tomatoes

Applied Soil Ecology, 21(3), 233–250.

By: L. Bulluck, K. Barker & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Optimization of sample size and DNA extraction methods to improve PCR detection of different propagules of Phytophthora infestans

Plant Disease, 86(3), 247–253.

By: T. Wangsomboondee & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Organic and synthetic fertility amendments influence soil microbial, physical and chemical properties on organic and conventional farms

Applied Soil Ecology, 19(2), 147–160.

By: L. Bulluck, M. Brosius, G. Evanylo & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Phytophthora infestans populations from tomato and potato in North Carolina differ in genetic diversity and structure

Phytopathology, 92(11), 1189–1195.

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Pioneering women in plant pathology. Part I, Effie A. Southworth, first woman plant pathologist hired at the USDA

By: J. Ristaino & P. Petersen

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2002 | journal article

Tracking historic migrations of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans

Microbes and Infection, 4(13), 1369–1377.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2001 | journal article

PCR amplification of the Irish potato famine pathogen from historic specimens

Nature, 411(6838), 695–697.

By: J. Ristaino, C. Groves & G. Parra

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2001 | journal article

Resistance to mefenoxam and metalaxyl among field isolates of Phytophthora capsici causing Phytophthora blight of bell pepper

Plant Disease, 85(10), 1069–1075.

By: G. Parra & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2000 | journal article

Commercial fungicide formulations induce in vitro oospore formation and phenotypic change in mating type in Phytophthora infestans

Phytopathology, 90(11), 1201–1208.

By: C. Groves & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2000 | journal article

New frontiers in the study of dispersal and spatial analysis of epidemics caused by species in the genus Phytophthora

Annual Review of Phytopathology, 38(2000), 541.

By: J. Ristaino & M. Gumpertz

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2000 | journal article

Temporal dynamics of Phytophthora blight on bell pepper in relation to the mechanisms of dispersal of primary inoculum of Phytophthora capsici in soil

Phytopathology, 90(2), 148–156.

By: L. Sujkowski, G. Parra, M. Gumpertz & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1999 | journal article

Characterization of isolates of Phytophthora infestans from tomato and potato in North Carolina from 1993 to 1995

Plant Disease, 83(7), 633–638.

By: D. Fraser, P. Shoemaker & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1999 | journal article

Ecologically-based approaches to management of Phytophthora blight on bell pepper

Plant Disease, 83(12), 1080–1089.

By: J. Ristaino & S. Johnston

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1999 | report

Phytophthora blight of peppers and cucurbits

Vegetable disease information note, Jan. 1999.

By: F. Louws, G. Holmes & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 | journal article

Insensitivity to Ridomil Gold (Mefenoxam) found among field isolates of phytophthora capsici causing phytophthora blight on bell pepper in North Carolina and New Jersey

Plant Disease, 82(6), 711.

By: G. Parra & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 | journal article

PCR amplification of ribosomal DNA for species identification in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64(3), 948–954.

By: J. Ristaino, M. Madritch, C. Trout & G. Parra

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 | patent

PCR assays for phytophthora species

Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1998 | journal article

The importance of archival and herbarium materials in understanding the role of oospores in late blight epidemics of the past

Phytopathology, 88(11), 1120–1130.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | conference paper

Advances in temperature predictive models for soil solarization

In Soil solarization and integrated management of soilborne pests: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Soil Solarization and Integrated Management of Soilborne Pests, Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, 16-21 March 1997. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United.

By: J. Ristaino & K. Perry

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | journal article

Agriculture, Methyl bromide, and the ozone hole

Plant Disease, 81(1997), 954–975.

By: J. Ristaino & T. W.

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | journal article

Agriculture, methyl bromide, and the ozone hole: Can we fill the gaps?

Plant Disease, 81(9), 964.

By: J. Ristaino & W. Thomas

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | journal article

Autologistic model of spatial pattern of Phytophythora epidemic in bell pepper: effects of soil variables on disease presence

Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 2(2), 131–156.

By: M. Gumpertz, J. Graham & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | conference paper

Effect of inoculum source type and cultural practices on the spread of Phytophthora capsici in bell pepper

In Soil solarization and integrated management of soilborne pests: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Soil Solarization and Integrated Management of Soilborne Pests, Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, 16-21 March 1997. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United.

By: J. Ristaino, G. Parra & C. Campbell

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | chapter

Geostatistical applications in epidemiology

In Exercises in plant disease epidemiology (pp. 94–99). St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press.

By: M. Gumpertz, R. Larkin & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | journal article

Rapid detection of Phytophthora infestans in late blight-inected potato and tomato using PCR

Plant Disease, 81(9), 1042–1048.

By: C. Trout, J. Ristaino, M. Madritch & T. Wangsomboondee

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | chapter

Spatial autocorrelation: Methods for continuous variables

In Exercises in plant disease epidemiology (pp. 72–77). St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press.

By: M. Gumpertz & J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1997 | journal article

Suppression of phytophthora blight in bell pepper by a no-till wheat cover crop

Phytopathology, 87(3), 242–249.

By: J. Ristaino, G. Parra & C. Campbell

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1996 | journal article

Soil solarization and Gliocladium virens reduce the incidence of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) in bell pepper in the field

Biocontrol Science and Technology, 6(4), 583.

By: J. Ristaino, K. Perry & R. Lumsden

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1994 | journal article

Influence of isolates of Gliocladium virens and delivery systems on biological control of southern blight on carrot and tomato in the field

Plant Disease, 78(2), 153.

By: J. Ristaino, J. Lewis & R. Lumsden

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1994 | journal article

Spatial dynamics of disease symptom expression during Phytophthora epidemics in bell pepper

Phytopathology, 84(10), 1015.

By: J. Ristaino, R. Larkin & C. Campbell

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1993 | journal article

Effect of resistance to Streptomyces ipomoeae on disease, yield, and dry matter partitioning in sweetpotato

Plant Disease, 77(2), 193.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1993 | journal article

Infection of sweetpotato fibrous roots by Streptomyces ipomoeae: Influence of soil water potential

Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 25(2), 185.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1993 | journal article

Spatial and temporal dynamics of Phytophthora epidemics in commercial bell pepper fields

Phytopathology, 83(12), 1312.

By: J. Ristaino, R. Larkin & C. Campbell

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1992 | journal article

Effects of irrigation, sulfur, and fumigation on Streptomyces soil rot and yield components in sweetpotato

Phytopathology, 82(6), 670.

By: J. Ristaino & C. Averre

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1992 | journal article

Population densities of Phytophthora capsici in field soils in relation to drip irrigation, rainfall, and disease incidence

Plant Disease, 76(10), 1017.

By: J. Ristaino, M. Hord & M. Gumpertz

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1991 | journal article

Effect of solarization and Gliocladium virens on sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii, soil microbiota, and the incidence of southern blight of tomato

Phytopathology, 81(10), 1117.

By: J. Ristaino, K. Perry & R. Lumsden

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1991 | journal article

Influence of rainfall, drip irrigation and inoculum density on the development of Phytophthora root and crown rot epidemics and yield in bell pepper

Phytopathology, 81(8), 922.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1991 | journal article

Occurrence of sweetpotato chlorotic distortion (Fusarium lateritium) in North Carolina

Plant Disease, 75(7), 750.

By: J. Ristaino, C. Averre, G. Abad & W. Jester

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

1990 | journal article

Intraspecific variation among isolates of Phytophthora capsici from pepper and cucurbit fields in North Carolina

Phytopathology, 80(11), 1253.

By: J. Ristaino

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018