Works (97)

Updated: April 3rd, 2024 20:28

2024 review

Porphyrin-Based Molecules in the Fossil Record Shed Light on the Evolution of Life

[Review of ]. MINERALS, 14(2).

By: J. Ayala n, E. Schroeter n & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: molecular paleontology; heme; porphyrin; hemoglobin; evolution; chemical evolution; preservation
TL;DR: The evolution and functional diversity of heme-bound hemoglobin proteins in vertebrates is discussed, along with the preservation of these molecules in the fossil record, which lays the groundwork necessary to explore hemoglobin as a means to investigate the paleobiology of extinct taxa, including non-avian dinosaurs. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
7. Affordable and Clean Energy (OpenAlex)
Sources: ORCID, Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: February 22, 2024

2023 journal article

A STATISTICAL META-ANALYSIS OF LITHOLOGIC AND OTHER POTENTIAL CONTROLS ON FOSSIL BONE CELLULAR AND SOFT TISSUE PRESERVATION

PALAIOS, 38(5), 246–257.

By: P. Ullmann* & M. Schweitzer

UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: July 19, 2023

2023 journal article

Independent Evidence for the Preservation of Endogenous Bone Biochemistry in a Specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex

BIOLOGY-BASEL, 12(2).

By: J. Anne*, A. Canoville*, N. Edwards*, M. Schweitzer n & L. Zanno n

author keywords: synchrotron; bone remodeling; elemental analysis; molecular paleontology; diagenetic alteration
TL;DR: It is shown that trace elements incorporated by the living animal during bone deposition and remodeling, such as zinc, are preserved in the fossil bone in a pattern similar to what is seen in modern bird bones, which further support the preservation of original biological material in this T. rex. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 27, 2023

2023 article

Paleontology in the 21st Century

Schweitzer, M. H. (2023, March). BIOLOGY-BASEL, Vol. 12.

By: M. Schweitzer n

UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: ORCID, Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 27, 2023

2022 journal article

An ancestral hard-shelled sea turtle with a mosaic of soft skin and scutes

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 12(1).

By: R. Garza*, H. Madsen, P. Sjoevall, F. Osbaeck, W. Zheng n, M. Jarenmark*, M. Schweitzer n, A. Engdahl* ...

MeSH headings : Animals; Turtles; Skin; Reptiles; Biological Evolution; Epidermis
TL;DR: These findings show that the adaptive transition to neritic waters by the ancestral pan-chelonioids was more complex than hitherto appreciated, and included at least one evolutionary lineage with a mosaic of integumental features not seen in any living turtle. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 20, 2023

2022 journal article

Environmental Factors Affecting Feather Taphonomy

BIOLOGY-BASEL, 11(5).

By: M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n & N. Equall*

author keywords: feather; taphonomy; degradation; keratin; microbes; CO2; apatite; melanin
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: June 13, 2022

2022 journal article

Soft-Tissue, Rare Earth Element, and Molecular Analyses of Dreadnoughtus schrani, an Exceptionally Complete Titanosaur from Argentina

BIOLOGY-BASEL, 11(8).

By: E. Schroeter n, P. Ullmann*, K. Macauley*, R. Ash*, W. Zheng n, M. Schweitzer n, K. Lacovara*

author keywords: fossil proteins; molecular paleontology; diagenesis; taphonomy; rare earth elements; soft-tissue preservation; geochemistry
TL;DR: The data show that original bone microstructures and protein are preserved in Dreadnoughtus, and that after burial, the specimen was exposed to weakly-oxidizing conditions and groundwaters rich in “light” REEs but experienced little further chemical alteration after this early stage of fossilization, supporting the idea that fossils showing lower concentrations of REEs are well suited for molecular analyses. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: September 6, 2022

2021 article

Deep Time Paleoproteomics: Looking Forward

Schroeter, E. R., Cleland, T. P., & Schweitzer, M. H. (2021, December 17). JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol. 12.

By: E. Schroeter n, T. Cleland* & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: paleoproteomics; deep time; dinosaurs; enamel; eggshell
MeSH headings : Animals; Archaeology; Dinosaurs; Fossils; Paleontology / methods; Proteins / analysis
TL;DR: The history and current state of deep time paleoproteomics (DTPp), here defined as Paleoproteomic study of samples ∼1 million years (1 Ma) or more in age, is discussed and the future of DTPp research is discussed, including what the authors see as critical ways the field can expand, advancements in technology that can be utilized, and the types of questions DTPP can address. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: January 3, 2022

2020 book

Dinosaurs

By: M. Schweitzer*, E. Schroeter & C. Czajka

Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: January 23, 2022

2020 journal article

Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage

NATIONAL SCIENCE REVIEW, 7(4), 815–822.

author keywords: cartilage; dinosaur; nuclei; chromosomes; collagen II; DNA markers
TL;DR: The data support the hypothesis that calcified cartilage is preserved at the molecular level in this Mesozoic material, and suggest that remnants of once-living chondrocytes, including their DNA, may preserve for millions of years. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: June 15, 2020

2020 journal article

Identifying medullary bone in extinct avemetatarsalians: challenges, implications and perspectives

By: A. Canoville n, M. Schweitzer n & L. Zanno n

author keywords: medullary bone characterization; computed tomography; bone pathology; endosteal tissue
MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Birds / anatomy & histology; Birds / physiology; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / physiology; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / physiology; Fossils / anatomy & histology; Phylogeny; Reptiles / anatomy & histology; Reptiles / physiology
TL;DR: It is argued that the prevalence, microstructural and chemical variability of MB in Neornithes is, as of yet, incompletely known and thus current diagnoses of MB do not capture the extent of variability that exists in modern birds. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: January 27, 2020

2020 journal article

Molecular tests support the viability of rare earth elements as proxies for fossil biomolecule preservation

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1).

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Dinosaurs; Fossils; Metals, Rare Earth / chemistry; Metals, Rare Earth / isolation & purification; Trace Elements / chemistry; Trace Elements / isolation & purification
TL;DR: The results thereby support the utility of REE profiles as proxies for soft tissue and biomolecular preservation in fossil bones and draw predictions as to the biomolescular recovery potential of additional REE profile types exhibited by fossil bones. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: October 19, 2020

2019 journal article

Dinosaur paleohistology: review, trends and new avenues of investigation

PeerJ, 7, e7764.

By: A. Bailleul*, J. O’Connor* & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: Dinosaurs; Birds; Mineralized tissues; Soft-tissues; Molecular paleontology; Paleohistochemistry; Standard paleohistology; New trends
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: September 30, 2019

2019 journal article

Mechanisms of soft tissue and protein preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex

Scientific Reports, 9, 15678.

By: E. Boatman*, M. Goodwin*, H. Holman*, S. Fakra*, W. Zheng n, R. Gronsky*, M. Schweitzer*

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / metabolism; Collagen Type I / chemistry; Collagen Type I / metabolism; Dinosaurs / metabolism; Fossils; Humans; Preservation, Biological; Proteins / chemistry; Proteins / metabolism
TL;DR: It is proposed that non-enzymatic crosslinking pathways likely contributed to stabilizing, and thus preserving, these T. rex vessels, and could play a crucial role in the preservation of other microvascular tissues in skeletal elements from the Mesozoic. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: November 18, 2019

2019 journal article

Paleoproteomics of Mesozoic Dinosaurs and Other Mesozoic Fossils

PROTEOMICS, 19(16), 1800251.

By: M. Schweitzer n, E. Schroeter n, T. Cleland* & W. Zheng n

author keywords: dinosaurs; fossil; mesozoic; protein; soft tissues
MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / metabolism; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / classification; Dinosaurs / metabolism; Fossils; Mass Spectrometry / methods; Paleontology / methods; Proteins / analysis; Proteomics / methods
TL;DR: The power and potential of a molecular approach to Mesozoic fossils is discussed, and some criteria for assessing the presence of endogenous biomolecules in very ancient fossil remains are suggested as a starting framework for such studies. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: July 22, 2019

2019 journal article

Proteomic method to extract, concentrate, digest and enrich peptides from fossils with coloured (humic) substances for mass spectrometry analyses

ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, 6(8).

By: E. Schroeter n, K. Blackburn n, M. Goshe n & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: palaeoproteomics; fossils; humic substances; protein; mass spectrometry; moa
TL;DR: A method combining multiple recent advances in extraction protocols to both concentrate proteins from fossil specimens with high humic content and remove humics, producing clean samples easily analysed by mass spectrometry (MS). (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: September 23, 2019

2019 journal article

Systemic distribution of medullary bone in the avian skeleton: ground truthing criteria for the identification of reproductive tissues in extinct Avemetatarsalia

BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19(1).

By: A. Canoville*, M. Schweitzer* & L. Zanno*

author keywords: Neornithes; Medullary bone skeletal distribution; Skeletal pneumaticity; Laying cycle; Micro-computed tomography; Chemical staining; Cranial medullary bone; Bone marrow; Avian ecology
MeSH headings : Animals; Birds / classification; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Extinction, Biological; Female; Fossils; Phylogeny; Reproduction / physiology; Species Specificity; Tomography, X-Ray Computed
TL;DR: Although its skeletal distribution varies interspecifically, MB is found to be a systemic tissue that can be deposited within virtually all skeletal regions, including cranial elements, and evidence that the deposition of MB is dictated by skeletal distribution patterns of both pneumaticity and bone marrow; two factors linked to ecology (body size, foraging). (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: March 25, 2019

2019 journal article

The molecular evolution of feathers with direct evidence from fossils

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(8), 3018–3023.

By: Y. Pan*, W. Zheng n, R. Sawyer*, M. Pennington, X. Zheng*, X. Wang*, M. Wang*, L. Hu* ...

author keywords: feather evolution; keratin expression; fossil-feather ultrastructure; dinosaur-bird transition; biomechanical properties
MeSH headings : Animals; Birds; Dinosaurs; Evolution, Molecular; Feathers / chemistry; Feathers / ultrastructure; Fossils; Keratins / chemistry; Skin / chemistry; Skin / ultrastructure; beta-Keratins / chemistry
TL;DR: It is confirmed here that feathers were modified at both molecular and morphological levels to obtain the biomechanical properties for flight during the dinosaur–bird transition, and it is shown that the patterns and timing of adaptive change at the molecular level can be directly addressed in exceptionally preserved fossils in deep time. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: March 4, 2019

2018 journal article

Preservation potential of keratin in deep time

PLOS ONE, 13(11), e0206569.

By: M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n, A. Moyer*, P. Sjövall* & J. Lindgren*

Ed(s): Y. Mishra

MeSH headings : Animals; Antibodies; Feathers / chemistry; Feathers / immunology; Feathers / ultrastructure; Fossils / ultrastructure; Hot Springs; Hot Temperature; Keratins / chemistry; Keratins / immunology; Tetrahydroisoquinolines; Time Factors
TL;DR: The data support the hypothesis that keratin, particularly the β-keratin that comprises feathers, has potential to preserve in fossil remains and stress the importance of employing realistic conditions such as sediment burial when designing experiments intended as proxies for taphonomic processes occurring in the fossil record. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: December 17, 2018

2018 article

Resonance Raman Imagery of Semi-Fossilized Soft Tissues

ULTRAFAST NONLINEAR IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY VI, Vol. 10753.

By: B. Long n, W. Zheng n, M. Schweitzer n & H. Hallen n

author keywords: Resonance Raman; hemoglobin; fossils; soft tissue
TL;DR: Variable wavelength resonance Raman measurements over the whole sample were used to give more information about the heme species present, in both ancient and modern samples. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 17, 2018

2018 journal article

Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur

Nature, 564(7736), 359–365.

By: J. Lindgren*, P. Sjövall*, V. Thiel*, W. Zheng n, S. Ito*, K. Wakamatsu*, R. Hauff, B. Kear* ...

MeSH headings : Adaptation, Physiological; Adipose Tissue / anatomy & histology; Adipose Tissue / chemistry; Animals; Biological Evolution; Body Temperature Regulation; Dermis / anatomy & histology; Dermis / chemistry; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / physiology; Dolphins; Epidermis / anatomy & histology; Epidermis / chemistry; Female; Fossils; Homeostasis; Keratinocytes / chemistry; Lipids / analysis; Male; Melanins / analysis; Melanophores / chemistry; Porpoises; Proteins / analysis
TL;DR: The presence of blubber and distribution of melanophores in a countershading pattern in an Early Jurassic ichthyosaur demonstrate that the evolutionary convergence of these reptiles with extant marine amniotes extends to the cellular and molecular levels. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: January 7, 2019

2017 journal article

Biochemistry and adaptive colouration of an exceptionally preserved juvenile fossil sea turtle

Scientific Reports, 7(1).

By: J. Lindgren*, T. Kuriyama*, H. Madsen, P. Sjövall*, W. Zheng n, P. Uvdal*, A. Engdahl*, A. Moyer n ...

MeSH headings : Animals; Fossils / anatomy & histology; Fossils / ultrastructure; Immunohistochemistry; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization; Turtles / anatomy & histology
TL;DR: The holotype (MHM-K2) of the Eocene cheloniine Tasbacka danica is arguably one of the best preserved juvenile fossil sea turtles on record and provides direct chemical evidence that adaptive melanism had evolved 54 million years ago. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2017 journal article

Expansion for the Brachylophosaurus canadensis Collagen I Sequence and Additional Evidence of the Preservation of Cretaceous Protein

JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 16(2), 920–932.

author keywords: paleoproteomics; collagen I; bone; Brachylophosaurus canadensis; phylogenetics; Archosauria
MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Biological Evolution; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Collagen Type I / chemistry; Dinosaurs / classification; Extinction, Biological; Fossils; Paleontology / instrumentation; Paleontology / methods; Peptide Fragments / analysis; Phylogeny; Proteomics / instrumentation; Proteomics / methods
TL;DR: The data robustly support the hypothesis of an endogenous origin for these peptides, confirm the idea that peptides can survive in specimens tens of millions of years old, and bolster the validity of the 2009 study. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Bone protein “extractomics”: comparing the efficiency of bone protein extractions of Gallus gallus in tandem mass spectrometry, with an eye towards paleoproteomics

PeerJ, 4, e2603.

author keywords: Bone matrix proteins; Bone protein extraction protocols; Methods comparison; Paleoproteomics; Mass spectrometry; Proteomics
TL;DR: It is found that when a standardized amount of extracted proteins was analyzed, extraction steps that yielded the most protein were often not the ones that produced the greatest diversity of bone proteins, or the highest degree of protein coverage. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (Web of Science)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Chemistry supports the identification of gender-specific reproductive tissue in Tyrannosaurus rex

Scientific Reports, 6(1).

By: M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n, L. Zanno*, S. Werning* & T. Sugiyama*

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Chickens / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Female; Fossils; Keratan Sulfate / analysis; Reproduction; Sex Characteristics; Sex Determination Analysis; Struthioniformes / anatomy & histology
TL;DR: Using the unique chemical and histological fingerprint of MB in birds to characterize, at the molecular level, MB in the non-avian theropod Tyrannosaurus rex and show that the retention of original molecular components in fossils allows deeper physiological and evolutionary questions to be addressed. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
5. Gender Equality (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Keratin Durability Has Implications for the Fossil Record: Results from a 10 Year Feather Degradation Experiment

PLOS ONE, 11(7), e0157699.

By: A. Moyer n, W. Zheng n & M. Schweitzer n

Ed(s): B. Beatty

MeSH headings : Animals; Antibodies / chemistry; Biological Evolution; Chickens; Epidermis / anatomy & histology; Feathers / chemistry; Fossils; Humans; Keratins / chemistry; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Nails; Phylogeny; Temperature
TL;DR: It is shown that feather keratin is durable, demonstrates structural and microstructural integrity, and retains epitopes suitable for specific antibody recognition in even the harshest conditions, which support the hypothesis that keratin antibody reactivity can be used to identify the nature and composition of epidermal structures in the rock record. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses of the claw of the nesting dinosaur, Citipati osmolskae

By: A. Moyer, W. Zheng & M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 113(49), E7900–E7907.

author keywords: keratinous protein; immunogold; ChemiSTEM; melanosome; Early Cretaceous
MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Birds / anatomy & histology; Feathers / ultrastructure; Fossils / ultrastructure; Keratins; Melanosomes
TL;DR: This work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird and sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2016 journal article

Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone

PLOS ONE, 11(2), e0150238.

By: M. Schweitzer n, A. Moyer n & W. Zheng n

Ed(s): L. Claessens

MeSH headings : Animals; Bacillus cereus / physiology; Biofilms; Blood Vessels / microbiology; Bone and Bones / cytology; Bone and Bones / microbiology; Bone and Bones / physiology; Calcification, Physiologic; Cattle; Dinosaurs; Fossils; Staphylococcus epidermidis / physiology
TL;DR: To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, two different biofilm-forming microorganisms are used to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed, and fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences are shown. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 journal article

Alligator osteoderms as a source of labile calcium for eggshell formation

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 297(4), 255–264.

By: C. Dacke*, R. Elsey*, P. Trosclair*, T. Sugiyama*, J. Nevarez* & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: alligator; egglay; osteoderm; endolymphatic sacs; medullary bone; calcium
TL;DR: Scute (osteoderm) X-ray density was significantly greater in females with ripe ovarian follicles compared with those that had recently laid or contained heavily calcified eggs within their oviducts, suggesting that the scutes play a role in Ca storage during egglay. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 journal article

Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in moa collagens

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1808), 20150015.

By: T. Cleland*, E. Schroeter n & M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: moa; collagen; diagenesis; post-translational modifications
MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Collagen / metabolism; Fossils; Mass Spectrometry; Palaeognathae / metabolism; Protein Processing, Post-Translational
TL;DR: Moa collagen sequences and modifications provide a baseline by which to evaluate proteomic studies of other fossils, and a framework for defining the molecular relationship of moa to other closely related taxa. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 review

Interpreting melanin-based coloration through deep time: A critical review

[Review of ]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 282(1813), 20150614.

By: J. Lindgren*, A. Moyer n, M. Schweitzer n, P. Sjovall*, P. Uvdal*, D. Nilsson*, J. Heimdal*, A. Engdahl* ...

author keywords: bacteria; eumelanin; melanosome; pheomelanin; pyomelanin; vertebrate
MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Fossils; Melanins / chemistry; Melanosomes / physiology; Microbodies / chemistry; Pigmentation; Vertebrates / physiology
TL;DR: Both vertebrate and microbial melanization are surveyed, and the conflicts influencing assessment of microbodies preserved in association with ancient animal soft tissues are explored, and an integrated morphological and geochemical approach for detecting endogenous pigment remains and associated microstructures in multimillion-year-old fossils is outlined. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 journal article

Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis

JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 14(12), 5252–5262.

By: T. Cleland n, E. Schroeter n, L. Zamdborg*, W. Zheng n, J. Lee*, J. Tran*, M. Bern*, M. Duncan* ...

author keywords: Brachylophosaurus canadensis; blood vessels; dinosaur; cytoskeleton; actin; tubulin; myosin; tropomyosin; tap honomy; preservation
MeSH headings : Actins / genetics; Actins / isolation & purification; Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Blood Vessels / anatomy & histology; Blood Vessels / metabolism; Blood Vessels / microbiology; Bone and Bones / blood supply; Chickens; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / genetics; Dinosaurs / metabolism; Fluorescent Antibody Technique / methods; Fossils / anatomy & histology; Mass Spectrometry; Models, Biological; Molecular Sequence Data; Myosins / genetics; Myosins / isolation & purification; Phylogeny; Proteomics / methods; Sequence Alignment; Species Specificity; Struthioniformes; Tropomyosin / genetics; Tropomyosin / isolation & purification; Tubulin / genetics; Tubulin / isolation & purification
TL;DR: Test the hypothesis that dinosaur cortical bone fragments recovered after demineralization are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence and two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2015 journal article

Melanosomes and ancient coloration re-examined: A response to Vinther 2015

BioEssays, 37(11), 1174–1183.

By: M. Schweitzer n, J. Lindgren* & A. Moyer n

author keywords: ancient color; fossil feather; melanin; melanosome; microbe; molecular paleontology; parsimony
MeSH headings : Animals; Humans; Melanins / analysis; Pigmentation
TL;DR: Evidence for ancient melanosomes is re‐examine in light of information reviewed in Vinther (2015), and literature regarding the preservation potential of microorganisms and their exopolymeric secretions. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

A Pelomedusoid Turtle from the Paleocene-Eocene of Colombia Exhibiting Preservation of Blood Vessels and Osteocytes

JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY, 48(4), 461–465.

By: E. Cadena n & M. Schweitzer n

TL;DR: The potential organic preservation of osteocytes and blood vessels for this specimen is demonstrated, indicating that preservation of soft tissue such as vessels and bone cells in the fossil record is independent of bone type, fossil site, or locality; and that it is even possible to occur in tropical depositional environments during a period of maximum global warming such as the Paleocene–Eocene. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

By: M. Schweitzer, W. Zheng, T. Cleland, M. Goodwin, E. Boatman, E. Theil, M. Marcus, S. Fakra

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Blood from Stone

Scientific American, 23(2s), 104–111.

By: M. Schweitzer*

Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: November 17, 2019

2014 magazine article

Dinosaurs are important

Schweitzer, M. H. (2014, June). Scientific American, 310(6), 12.

By: M. Schweitzer*

MeSH headings : Animals; Climate Change; Dinosaurs / physiology; Fossils; Humans
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 12, 2021

2014 journal article

Dinosaurs are important yesterday's big reptiles can help us figure out how the human era is shaping up

Scientific American, 310(6), 12–12.

By: M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Melanosomes or Microbes: Testing an Alternative Hypothesis for the Origin of Microbodies in Fossil Feathers

Scientific Reports, 4(1).

TL;DR: ‘Mouldic impressions’ were observed in association with both the feather and sediment grains, supporting a microbial origin and a criteria for distinguishing between these two microbodies is proposed. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Protein Molecular Data from Ancient (>1 million years old) Fossil Material: Pitfalls, Possibilities and Grand Challenges

Analytical Chemistry, 86(14), 6731–6740.

By: M. Schweitzer*, E. Schroeter & M. Goshe*

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones; Collagen / analysis; Collagen / chemistry; Dinosaurs; Fossils; Hydroxyproline / analysis; Keratins / analysis; Keratins / chemistry; Mass Spectrometry / methods; Proteins / analysis; Proteomics / methods
TL;DR: The challenges to recovery of proteinaceous components from fossils, and the need for new sample preparation techniques, analytical methods, and bioinformatics to optimize and fully utilize the great potential of information locked in the fossil record are discussed. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries, Crossref
Added: August 6, 2018

2014 journal article

Synchrotron Chemical and Structural Analysis of Tyrannosaurus rex Blood Vessels: The Contribution of Collagen Hypercrosslinking to Tissue Longevity

Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20(S3), 1430–1431.

By: E. Boatman*, M. Goodwin*, H. Holman*, S. Fakra*, M. Schweitzer n, R. Gronsky*, J. Horner*

TL;DR: Non-enzymatic intermolecular crosslinking of fibrillar collagen supermolescular networks in fossil blood vessels has been suggested as a possible contributor to tissue longevity. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 8, 2020

2013 journal article

Molecular analyses of dinosaur osteocytes support the presence of endogenous molecules

BONE, 52(1), 414–423.

By: M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n, T. Cleland n & M. Bern*

author keywords: Osteocytes; Fossil; Dinosaur; T. rex; Ancient proteins; Ancient DNA
MeSH headings : Animals; Dinosaurs; Mass Spectrometry; Osteocytes / chemistry
TL;DR: These data are the first to support preservation of multiple proteins and to present multiple lines of evidence for material consistent with DNA in dinosaurs, supporting the hypothesis that these structures were part of the once living animals. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2013 magazine article

Willo’s change of heart

The Naturalist, 6–7.

By: L. Hertzog, M. Schweitzer & L. Zanno

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 12, 2021

2012 chapter

Chemical Analyses of Fossil Bone

In Methods in Molecular Biology (pp. 153–172).

By: W. Zheng n & M. Schweitzer*

MeSH headings : Animals; Blotting, Western; Bone Demineralization Technique / methods; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / cytology; Bone and Bones / ultrastructure; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Fossils; Immunohistochemistry; Silver Staining
TL;DR: To test this hypothesis, and to characterize these materials at a molecular level, multiple independent chemical, molecular, and microscopic analyses were applied to identify the presence of original components produced by the extinct organisms. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: November 17, 2019

2012 chapter

Claws, scales, beaks and feathers: Molecular traces in the fossil record

In M. K. Brett-Surman, T. R. Holtz, & J. O. Farlow (Eds.), The Complete Dinosaur (2nd ed., pp. 273–284). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

By: M. Schweitzer & M. Marshall

Ed(s): M. Brett-Surman, T. Holtz & J. Farlow

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: October 30, 2020

2012 journal article

Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols

PLoS ONE, 7(2), e31443.

By: T. Cleland n, K. Voegele* & M. Schweitzer n

Ed(s): A. Evans

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone Demineralization Technique / methods; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Collagen Type I / isolation & purification; Fossils; Hemoglobins / isolation & purification; Methods; Osteocalcin / isolation & purification; Proteins / isolation & purification; Proteomics / methods; Struthioniformes
TL;DR: It is found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed, and both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2012 review

Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present

[Review of ]. BONE, 51(3), 614–620.

By: E. Cadena* & M. Schweitzer*

author keywords: Osteocyte morphology; Testudines; Cenozoic; Mesozoic; Exceptional preservation
MeSH headings : Animal Shells / anatomy & histology; Animal Shells / cytology; Animals; Biological Evolution; Bone Demineralization Technique; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / cytology; Cell Separation; Cell Shape; Extinction, Biological; Fossils; Osteocytes / cytology; Preservation, Biological; Time Factors; Turtles / anatomy & histology
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny, and that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 journal article

Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival

PLoS One, 6(6).

By: J. Antonio, M. Schweitzer, S. Jensen, R. Kalluri, M. Buckley & J. Orgel

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 journal article

Histological, chemical, and morphological reexamination of the "heart" of a small Late Cretaceous Thescelosaurus

NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN, 98(3), 203–211.

By: T. Cleland n, M. Stoskopf n & M. Schweitzer*

author keywords: Ornithischia; Computed tomography; X-ray diffraction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
MeSH headings : Animals; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Fossils; Heart / anatomy & histology; Heart / diagnostic imaging; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Myocardium / chemistry; Myocardium / ultrastructure; Photoelectron Spectroscopy; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; X-Ray Diffraction
TL;DR: The hypothesis that this Thescelosaurus has a preserved heart was controversial, and therefore, the hypothesis was reexamined using higher-resolution computed tomography, paleohistological examination,X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy for detailed morphological and chemical examination beyond what was provided in the original work. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2011 review

Soft tissue preservation in terrestrial mesozoic vertebrates

[Review of ]. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences, vol 39, 39(1), 187–216.

By: M. Schweitzer n

author keywords: exceptional preservation; soft tissue fossils; dinosaur; molecular preservation
TL;DR: A selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates are reviewed, chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation are examined, the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies are explored, and clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation are suggested. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
Sources: Web Of Science, Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 journal article

BLOOD FROM STONE

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 303(6), 62–69.

By: M. Schweitzer n

MeSH headings : Amino Acids / analysis; Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / cytology; Dinosaurs; Erythrocytes / chemistry; Fossils; Iron / analysis; Minerals / analysis; Proteins / analysis; Sequence Analysis, Protein
TL;DR: The article discusses paleontological research findings regarding the persistence of organic substances including blood vessels, bone cells, and fingernail-like matter in dinosaur remains from millions of years ago. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2010 journal article

Limb bone histology and growth in Placerias hesternus (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the upper triassic of North America

Palaeontology, 53, 347–364.

By: J. Green, M. Schweitzer & E. Lamm

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2009 journal article

Biomolecular characterization and protein sequences of the Campanian hadrosaur Brachylophosaurus canadensis

Science, 324(5927), 626–631.

By: M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n, C. Organ*, R. Avci*, Z. Suo*, L. Freimark*, V. Lebleu*, M. Duncan* ...

MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Birds / classification; Bone Demineralization Technique; Bone Matrix / chemistry; Collagen / analysis; Collagen / chemistry; Collagen / isolation & purification; Dinosaurs / classification; Elastin / analysis; Femur / blood supply; Femur / chemistry; Femur / ultrastructure; Fossils; Hemoglobins / analysis; Immunologic Techniques; Laminin / analysis; Mass Spectrometry; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Molecular Sequence Data; Osteocytes / ultrastructure; Peptide Fragments / chemistry; Peptide Fragments / isolation & purification; Phylogeny; Proteins / analysis; Proteins / chemistry; Proteins / isolation & purification; Sequence Alignment
TL;DR: Microstructural and immunological data are consistent with preservation of multiple bone matrix and vessel proteins, and phylogenetic analyses of Brachylophosaurus collagen sequenced by mass spectrometry robustly support the bird-dinosaur clade, consistent with an endogenous source for these collagen peptides. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Microscopic, chemical and molecular methods for examining fossil specimens

Comptes Rendus Palevol, 7(2-3), 159–184.

By: M. Schweitzer n, R. Avci*, T. Collier n & M. Goodwin*

author keywords: molecular preservation; diagenesis; fossil; ancient DNA; ancient protein; dinosaur; mass spectrometry
TL;DR: This review describes some of these powerful new analytical tools, the data that may be accessible through their use, advantages and limitations, and how they can be applied to fossil material to elucidate characteristics of extinct organisms and their paleoecological environments. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Molecular phylogenetics of mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex

SCIENCE, 320(5875), 499–499.

By: C. Organ n, M. Schweitzer n, W. Zheng n, L. Freimark n, L. Cantley n & J. Asara n

MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Bayes Theorem; Biological Evolution; Birds / classification; Birds / genetics; Bone and Bones; Collagen Type I / chemistry; Collagen Type I / genetics; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / classification; Dinosaurs / genetics; Elephants / anatomy & histology; Elephants / classification; Elephants / genetics; Fossils; Likelihood Functions; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny; Sequence Alignment
TL;DR: The findings suggest that molecular data from long-extinct organisms may have the potential for resolving relationships at critical areas in the vertebrate evolutionary tree that have, so far, been phylogenetically intractable. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Response to comment on "protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry"

By: J. Asara & M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2008 journal article

Response to comment on "protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry"

By: J. Asara, M. Schweitzer, L. Cantley & J. Cottrell

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 journal article

Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein

SCIENCE, 316(5822), 277–280.

By: M. Schweitzer n, Z. Suo*, R. Avci*, J. Asara n, M. Allen n, F. Arce*, J. Horner n

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / ultrastructure; Collagen Type I / analysis; Collagen Type I / ultrastructure; Dinosaurs; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Fossils; Immunoenzyme Techniques; Microscopy, Atomic Force; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion
TL;DR: The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues and a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation is proposed. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 journal article

Do egg-laying crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) archosaurs form medullary bone?

BONE, 40(4), 1152–1158.

By: M. Schweitzer n, R. Elsey*, C. Dacke*, J. Horner* & E. Lamm*

author keywords: medullary bone; archosaur; bird; dinosaur; crocodile; reproduction
MeSH headings : Alligators and Crocodiles / classification; Alligators and Crocodiles / growth & development; Alligators and Crocodiles / physiology; Animals; Biological Evolution; Birds / classification; Birds / growth & development; Birds / physiology; Bone Development; Calcification, Physiologic; Dinosaurs / classification; Dinosaurs / growth & development; Dinosaurs / physiology; Egg Shell / growth & development; Egg Shell / physiology; Female; Fossils; Male; Oogenesis; Oviposition
TL;DR: Examination of long bones from several alligators shows no differences on the endosteal surfaces of the long bones, and no evidence of medullary bone, supporting the hypothesis that medullARY bone first evolved in the dinosaur-bird line, after the divergence of crocodilians from this lineage. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 personal communication

Interpreting sequences from mastodon and T-rex

Asara, J. M., Garavelli, J. S., Slatter, D. A., Schweitzer, M. H., Freimark, L. M., Phillips, M., & Cantley, L. C. (2007, September 7).

By: J. Asara*, J. Garavelli*, D. Slatter*, M. Schweitzer n, L. Freimark*, M. Phillips*, L. Cantley*

MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Collagen / chemistry; Dinosaurs; Elephants; Fossils; Glycine / chemistry; Mass Spectrometry; Molecular Sequence Data; Proline / chemistry; Tandem Mass Spectrometry
TL;DR: It is reported that collagen proteins from well-preserved ancient fossil bones from a 160,000- to 600,000 year-old mastodon and a 68-million-year-old T. rex can be extracted and sequenced by mass spectrometry. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 journal article

New Avenues of Investigation for Old Bones

Microscopy and Microanalysis, 13(S02).

By: M. Schweitzer n

TL;DR: Extended abstract of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2007 in Ft. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 8, 2020

2007 journal article

Porphyrin as an ideal biomarker in the search for extraterrestrial life

ASTROBIOLOGY, 7(4), 605–615.

By: Z. Suo*, R. Avci*, M. Schweitzer n & M. Deliorman*

MeSH headings : Biomarkers / analysis; Exobiology; Hemin / analysis; Hemin / chemistry; Models, Molecular; Planets; Porphyrins / analysis; Porphyrins / chemistry; Space Flight; Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization; Spectrophotometry
TL;DR: Preliminary data is presented to support the use of ToFSIMS as a powerful technique in the identification of porphyrin derivatives and methods for detecting porphyrs in terrestrial sedimentary environments are discussed. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 journal article

Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry

SCIENCE, 316(5822), 280–285.

By: J. Asara n, M. Schweitzer n, L. Freimark n, M. Phillips n & L. Cantley n

MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Collagen / chemistry; Dinosaurs; Elephants; Evolution, Molecular; Fossils; Humans; Mass Spectrometry; Molecular Sequence Data; Proteins / analysis; Proteins / chemistry; Reptilian Proteins / analysis; Reptilian Proteins / chemistry; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, Protein; Struthioniformes
TL;DR: The presence of T. rex sequences indicates that their peptide bonds were remarkably stable, and mass spectrometry can be used to determine unique sequences from ancient organisms from peptide fragmentation patterns, a valuable tool to study the evolution and adaptation of ancient taxa from which genomic sequences are unlikely to be obtained. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 journal article

Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 274(1607), 183–197.

By: M. Schweitzer n, J. Wittmeyer n & J. Horner*

author keywords: dinosaur; soft tissues; red blood cells; osteocytes; vessels; preservation
MeSH headings : Animals; Birds / anatomy & histology; Blood Vessels / cytology; Bone Demineralization Technique; Bone and Bones / blood supply; Bone and Bones / cytology; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Fossils; Mammals / anatomy & histology; Paleontology / methods
TL;DR: The results suggest that present models of fossilization processes may be incomplete and that soft tissue elements may be more commonly preserved, even in older specimens, than previously thought. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2007 book review

The Sauropods

[Review of The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology, by K. A. C. Rogers & J. A. Wilson]. Copeia, 2007(1), 234–237.

By: M. Schweitzer*

TL;DR: The Sauropods, edited by K. Curry-Rogers and J. Wilson, provides a comprehensive summary of work done in the area discussed, and provides a wonderful starting place for students of dinosaur biology interested in any area of study. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: NC State University Libraries, NC State University Libraries
Added: March 19, 2021

2007 journal article

Will current technologies enable dinosaur proteomics?

Expert Review of Proteomics, 4(6), 695–699.

By: G. Smejkal* & M. Schweitzer n

MeSH headings : Animals; Behavior; Biological Evolution; Bone and Bones / metabolism; Collagen / metabolism; DNA / metabolism; Dinosaurs; Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional; Fossils; Proteomics / methods; Proteomics / trends
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: November 17, 2019

2006 journal article

Dinosaur eggshell study using scanning electron microscopy

Scanning, 24(5), 217–223.

By: F. Jackson*, M. Schweitzer* & J. Schmitt*

MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Egg Shell / physiology; Egg Shell / ultrastructure; Fossils; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
TL;DR: Visualization and analysis of structural features in fossil dinosaur eggs by scanning electron microscopy augment information from traditional petrographic light microscopy to make inferences about dinosaur reproductive biology, physiology, and evolutionary relationships. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

2005 journal article

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 272(1566), 905–911.

By: A. Channing*, M. Schweitzer n, . Horner* & T. McEneaney*

author keywords: hot spring deposits; silicification; fossilization; geomicrobiology; avian fossil
MeSH headings : Animals; Birds / anatomy & histology; Birds / metabolism; Birds / microbiology; Environment; Fossils; Geological Phenomena; Geology; Minerals / metabolism; Species Specificity; Wyoming
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
14. Life Below Water (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Experimental support for an immunological approach to the search for life on other planets

ASTROBIOLOGY, 5(1), 30–47.

By: M. Schweitzer n, J. Wittmeyer n, R. Avci* & S. Pincus*

author keywords: Antibody reactivity; extraction methods; exobiology; astrobiology
MeSH headings : Biomarkers / analysis; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods; Exobiology / methods; Extraterrestrial Environment; Fossils; Immunologic Techniques; Planets
TL;DR: A three-phase approach to test for evidence of life in extraterrestrial samples capitalizes on the flexibility, sensitivity, and specificity of antibody-antigen interactions. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
13. Climate Action (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Gender-specific reproductive tissue in ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex

SCIENCE, 308(5727), 1456–1460.

By: M. Schweitzer n, J. Wittmeyer n & . Horner n

MeSH headings : Animals; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / ultrastructure; Chickens / anatomy & histology; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Dromaiidae / anatomy & histology; Female; Femur / anatomy & histology; Male; Palaeognathae / anatomy & histology; Reproduction; Sex Characteristics; Sex Determination Analysis; Struthioniformes / anatomy & histology
TL;DR: The presence of endosteally derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of Tyrannosaurus rex hindlimb elements are reported, and it is hypothesized that these tissues are homologous to specialized avian tissues known as medullary bone. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 272(1565), 775–784.

By: M. Schweitzer n, L. Chiappe*, A. Garrido, J. Lowenstein* & S. Pincus*

author keywords: palaeoimmunology; dinosaur; immunohistochemistry; eggshell; embryo; histology
MeSH headings : Animals; Antigens / chemistry; Argentina; Dinosaurs / embryology; Dinosaurs / genetics; Dinosaurs / immunology; Egg Shell / chemistry; Egg Shell / diagnostic imaging; Egg Shell / ultrastructure; Elements; Embryo, Nonmammalian / chemistry; Embryo, Nonmammalian / ultrastructure; Fossils; Immunohistochemistry; Microscopy, Electron; Paleontology / methods; Radiography; Skin / ultrastructure
TL;DR: Organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells are demonstrated, demonstrating preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur egg shells. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 conference paper

One pretty amazing T.rex : A presentation for "100 years of tyrannosaurus rex

(K. Carpenter & P. Larson, Eds.).

By: M. Schweitzer & J. Wittmeyer

Ed(s): K. Carpenter & P. Larson

Event: 100 years of Tyrannosaurus rex symposium at Black Hills Museum of Natural History on June 10-11, 2005

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: October 30, 2020

2005 journal article

Preservation of bone collagen from the late cretaceous period studied by immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy

LANGMUIR, 21(8), 3584–3590.

By: R. Avci n, M. Schweitzer n, R. Boyd n, J. Wittmeyer n, F. Arce n & J. Calvo n

MeSH headings : Animals; Argentina; Binding Sites; Birds; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Bone and Bones / ultrastructure; Collagen / chemistry; Collagen / immunology; Collagenases / metabolism; Fossils; Immunohistochemistry / methods; Microscopy, Atomic Force / methods; Paleontology
TL;DR: Collagen pull-off measurements not only support immunochemical evidence for collagen preservation for antibody recognition but also imply preservation of the whole molecular integrity. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex

SCIENCE, 307(5717), 1952–1955.

By: M. Schweitzer n, J. Wittmeyer n, . Horner n & J. Toporski*

MeSH headings : Animals; Blood Vessels / anatomy & histology; Blood Vessels / cytology; Bone Demineralization Technique; Bone Matrix; Bone and Bones / anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones / blood supply; Bone and Bones / cytology; Cell Separation; DNA / analysis; Dinosaurs / anatomy & histology; Elasticity; Femur / anatomy & histology; Femur / blood supply; Fossils; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Montana; Osteocytes / cytology; Osteocytes / ultrastructure; Time
TL;DR: Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex and removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
15. Life on Land (Web of Science)
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2005 journal article

Warm-blooded

Natural History Magazine, 114(4), 50–51.

By: M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Comparison of antibody-antigen interactions on collagen measured by conventional immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy

LANGMUIR, 20(25), 11053–11063.

By: R. Avci n, M. Schweitzer n, R. Boyd n, J. Wittmeyer n, A. Steele n, J. Toporski n, W. Beech n, F. Arce n ...

MeSH headings : Air; Animals; Antigen-Antibody Reactions / immunology; Antigen-Antibody Reactions / physiology; Chickens; Collagen / chemistry; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Immunologic Techniques; Microscopy, Atomic Force / methods; Particle Size; Surface Properties
TL;DR: The repeated localization and measurement of unbinding forces associated with antibody--antigen (ab--ag) interactions are demonstrated, by applying AFM in air and in liquid to visualize and measure polyclonal ab--ag interactions, using chicken collagen as a model system. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Sources: Web Of Science, NC State University Libraries
Added: August 6, 2018

2004 journal article

Molecular paleontology: some current advances and problems

Annales De Paléontologie, 90(2), 81–102.

By: M. Higby Schweitzer

TL;DR: Molecular investigations of fossil specimens seek to assess if any original chemical/molecular material persists, whether or not this material retains systematic significance, if molecular preservation can be or is linked to morphological preservation, and to understand degradation patterns for biomolecules that may enter the geologic record. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: November 17, 2019

2003 journal article

Remarkable Preservation of Undigested Muscle Tissue Within a Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurid Coprolite from Alberta, Canada

PALAIOS, 18(3), 286–294.

By: K. Chin*, D. Eberth*, M. Schweitzer*, T. Rando*, W. Sloboda* & J. Horner*

UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
14. Life Below Water (OpenAlex)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

2003 journal article

The future of molecular paleontology

Paleontologica Electronica, 5(2), editorial 2.

By: M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 19, 2021

2002 chapter

Applying 21st century technology to very old animals

In J. G. Scotchmoor, D. A. Springer, B. H. Breithaupt, & T. Fiorillo (Eds.), Dinosaurs: The Science Behind the Stories (pp. 137–144). Alexandria, VA: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, The Paleontological Society, American Geological Institute.

By: R. Chapman, N. Matthews, M. Schweitzer & C. Horner

Ed(s): J. Scotchmoor, D. Springer, B. Breithaupt & T. Fiorillo

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 19, 2021

2002 journal article

Identification of Immunoreactive Material in Mammoth Fossils

Journal of Molecular Evolution, 55(6), 696–705.

By: M. Schweitzer*, C. Hill, J. Asara, W. Lane & S. Pincus*

author keywords: fossil; mammoth; ancient proteins; molecular preservation; mass spectrometry
MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Elephants / genetics; Fossils; Immune Sera; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Molecular Sequence Data
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that antibodies may be used to obtain information from the fossil record by identifying molecules that were not observed by mass spectrometry, indicating that immunologic methods may have greater sensitivity. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

2002 journal article

Late Cretaceous avian eggs with embryos from Argentina

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(1), 191–195.

By: M. Schweitzer*, F. Jackson*, L. Chiappe*, J. Schmitt*, J. Calvo* & D. Rubilar*

TL;DR: This data indicates that the distribution of Carboniferous strata in the Northern Hemisphere has changed significantly in recent centuries, with the largest changes occurring in the western hemisphere during the Bronze and Iron Age. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: September 28, 2019

2001 journal article

A molecular model for the evolution of endothermy in the theropod-bird lineage

Journal of Experimental Zoology, 291(4), 317–338.

By: M. Schweitzer* & C. Marshall*

MeSH headings : Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Biological Evolution; Birds / physiology; Body Temperature; Dinosaurs / physiology; Models, Molecular
TL;DR: The model begins with simple changes in a single gene of a common ancestor, and it includes a series of concomitant physiological and morphological changes, beginning perhaps as early as the first archosaurian common ancestor of dinosaurs and crocodiles. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

2001 conference paper

Evolutionary implications of possible protofeather structures associated with a specimen of Shuvuuia deserti

In J. Gauthier (Ed.), New Perspectives on the Origin and Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (pp. 181–194). New Haven, Connecticut: Peabody Museum of Natural History Special Publication.

By: M. Schweitzer

Ed(s): J. Gauthier

Event: International Symposium in honor of John H. Ostrom at New Haven, CT on February 13-14, 1999

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 19, 2021

2001 conference paper

Mars immunoassay life detection instrument for astrobiology (MILDI)

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII : papers presented at the thirty-second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference : March 12-16, 2001, Houston, Texas. Presented at the Thirty-second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX.

By: A. Steele, D. McKay, C. Allen, K. Thomas-Keprta, D. Warmflash, M. Schweitzer, J. Priscu, J. Hedgecock ...

Event: Thirty-second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at Houston, TX on March 12-16, 2001

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 26, 2021

2001 conference paper

Micro-array assay for solar system exploration

Exo-/astro-biology : proceedings of the first European workshop, 21-23 May 2001, ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, 91–97. Noordwijk: European Space Agency Publications Division.

By: A. Steele, J. Toporski, D. McKay, M. Schweitzer, S. Pincus, J. Pérez-Mercader, V. Parro

Event: Exo-/astro-biology, First European Workshop at ESRIN, Frascati, Italy on May 21-23, 2001

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 19, 2021

1999 journal article

Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid,Shuvuuia deserti

Journal of Experimental Zoology, 285(2), 146–157.

By: M. Schweitzer*, J. Watt, R. Avci, L. Knapp, L. Chiappe, M. Norell, M. Marshall

Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

1999 journal article

Intravascular microstructures in trabecular bone tissues of Tyrannosaurus rex

Annales De Paléontologie, 85(3), 179–192.

By: M. Higby Schweitzer & J. Horner*

TL;DR: Histological analyses of trabecular tissue from the limb bones of a Tyrannosaurus rex revealed the presence of small (average 25 μm) round microstructures in the vascular channels of the bone, which link these micro Structures to endogenous biological components, although their origin is not confirmed. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

1999 journal article

Keratin immunoreactivity in the Late Cretaceous bird Rahonavis ostromi

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(4), 712–722.

By: M. Schweitzer*, J. Watt*, R. Avci*, C. Forster*, D. Krause*, L. Knapp*, R. Rogers*, I. Beech*, M. Marshall*

TL;DR: It is suggested that original proteinaceous components of keratin claw sheath material may be preserved in the pedal ungual phalanx associated with the primitive bird, Rahonavis ostromi from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: February 10, 2020

1999 journal article

Mammoth (Mammuthus) from the Doden Gravels, Eastern Montana: biometric and molecular analyses

Current Research in the Pleistocene, 16, 120–123.

By: C. Hill & M. Schweitzer

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 26, 2021

1997 conference paper

Blood from a stone?

In D. Wolberg, E. Stump, & G. D. Rosenberg (Eds.), Dinofest International : proceedings of a symposium held at Arizona State University (pp. 101–104). Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences.

By: M. Schweitzer, M. Marshall, D. Barnard, S. Bohle, K. Arnold & J. Starkey

Ed(s): D. Wolberg, E. Stump & G. Rosenberg

Event: Dinofest International at Tempe, AZ

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 26, 2021

1997 journal article

Heme compounds in dinosaur trabecular bone

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(12), 6291–6296.

By: M. Schweitzer*, M. Marshall*, K. Carron*, D. Bohle*, S. Busse*, E. Arnold*, D. Barnard*, J. Horner*, J. Starkey*

MeSH headings : Animals; Biological Evolution; Birds; Bone and Bones / chemistry; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy; Fossils; Heme / analysis; Hemoglobins / analysis; Hemoglobins / genetics; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Mammals; Peptide Fragments / immunology; Rats; Reptiles; Spectrophotometry; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
TL;DR: Six independent lines of evidence point to the existence of heme-containing compounds and/or hemoglobin breakdown products in extracts of trabecular tissues of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex, with the most parsimonious explanation being the presence of blood-derived hemoglobin compounds preserved in the dinosaurian tissues. (via Semantic Scholar)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

1997 chapter

Jurassic Park

In P. J. Currie & K. Padian (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs (pp. 385–387). Academic Press.

By: M. Schweitzer & D. Lessom

Ed(s): P. Currie & K. Padian

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 26, 2021

1997 chapter

Molecular paleontology: rationale and techniques for the study of ancient molecules

In J. O. Farlow & M. K. Brett-Surman (Eds.), The Complete Dinosaur (pp. 137–149). Indiana University Press.

By: M. Schweitzer

Ed(s): J. Farlow & M. Brett-Surman

Source: NC State University Libraries
Added: March 26, 2021

1997 journal article

Preservation of biomolecules in cancellous bone of Tyrannosaurus rex

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 17(2), 349–359.

By: M. Schweitzer*, C. Johnson*, T. Zocco*, J. Horner* & J. Starkey*

TL;DR: An exceptionally well preserved specimen of the tyrannosaurid dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn shows little evidence of permineralization or other diagenetic effects, suggesting that the cancellous bone tissues of the specimen may have been protected from water infiltration or mineral deposition by the very dense cortical bone which surrounds them. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
6. Clean Water and Sanitation (OpenAlex)
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

1995 journal article

Detecting dinosaur DNA

Science, 268(5214), 1191–1192.

By: S. Hedges & M. Schweitzer*

MeSH headings : Animals; Consensus Sequence; Cytochrome b Group / genetics; DNA / genetics; Fossils; Humans; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny
Sources: Crossref, NC State University Libraries
Added: December 16, 2019

Employment

Updated: November 16th, 2015 09:19

2003 - present

North Carolina State University Raleigh , NC, US
Professor Dept. of Biological Sciences

Education

Updated: November 16th, 2015 09:18

1991 - 1995

Montana State University Bozeman Bozeman, MT, US
PhD Biology

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