Process hybridization schemes for multiscale engineered tissue biofabrication
[Review of ]. WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-NANOMEDICINE AND NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, 13(2).
Recapitulation of multiscale structure–function properties of cells, cell-secreted extracellular matrix, and 3D architecture of natural tissues is central to engineering biomimetic tissue substitutes. Toward achieving biomimicry, a variety of biofabrication processes have been developed, which can be broadly classified into five categories—fiber and fabric formation, additive manufacturing, surface modification, remote fields, and other notable processes—each with specific advantages and limitations. The majority of biofabrication literature has focused on using a single process at a time, which often limits the range of tissues that could be created with relevant features that span nano to macro scales. With multiscale biomimicry as the goal, development of hybrid biofabrication strategies that synergistically unite two or more processes to complement each other's strengths and limitations has been steadily increasing. This work discusses recent literature in this domain and attempts to equip the reader with the understanding of selecting appropriate processes that can harmonize toward creating engineered tissues with appropriate multiscale structure–function properties. Opportunities related to various hybridization schemes and a future outlook on scale-up biofabrication have also been discussed. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement