2022 journal article
Pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos air concentrations and pregnant women's urinary metabolites in the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA) Costa Rica ,
ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, 166.
Only few studies have compared environmental pesticide air concentrations with specific urinary metabolites to evaluate pathways of exposure. Therefore, we compared pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos concentrations in air with urinary 4-hydroxypyrimethanil (OHP, metabolite of pyrimethanil) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos) among pregnant women from the Infant's Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Matina County, Costa Rica.During pregnancy, we obtained repeat urinary samples from 448 women enrolled in the ISA study. We extrapolated pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos concentrations measured with passive air samplers (PAS) (n = 48, from 12 schools), across space and time using a Bayesian spatiotemporal model. We subsequently compared these concentrationswith urinary OHP and TCPy in 915 samples from 448 women, usingseparatemixed models andconsidering several covariables.A 10% increase in air pyrimethanil (ng/m3) was associated with a 5.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.6, 6.8) increase in OHP (μg/L). Women living further from banana plantations had lower OHP: -0.7% (95% CI -1.2, -0.3) for each 10% increase in distance (meters) as well as women who ate rice and beans ≥15 times a week -23% (95% CI -38, -4). In addition, each 1 ng/m3 increase in chlorpyrifos in air was associated with a 1.5% (95% CI 0.2, 2.8) increase in TCPy (μg/L), and women working in agriculture tended to have increased TCPy (21%, 95% CI -2, 49).The Bayesian spatiotemporal models were useful to estimate pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos air concentrations across space and time. Our results suggest inhalation of pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos is a pathway of environmental exposure. PAS seems a useful technique to monitor environmental current-use pesticide exposures. For future studies, we recommend increasing the number of locations of environmental air measurements, obtaining all air and urine measurements during the same month, and, ideally, including dermal exposure estimates as well.