Review of Automated Microinjection Systems for Single Cells in the Embryogenesis Stage
[Review of ]. IEEE-ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, 21(5), 2391–2404.
Modern genetics research has resulted in significant advances in cell in vitro microinjection systems. Such systems provide biological and medical practitioners with high volume cell throughput and statistically relevant data. This paper provides the reader with a comprehensive review of the major research technologies used in automated cell microinjection and of their individual subsystems. Microinjection subsystems reviewed include machine vision, nonvision sensors and user interface (input), cell modeling, piercing mechanisms and injection control loop (control), cell holder and manipulator, and microinjection (output). The interdisciplinary technologies reviewed for microinjection sensing, automation, and control include microfluidic actuation, optical field actuation (optical trapping and optical guidance), electrical field actuation (electrorotation, electrowetting, and dielectrophoresis), and ultrasonic vibration. The survey concludes that research into automated microinjection systems will focus on reducing the scale of microinjection systems and developing appropriate controllers.