2022 journal article
The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin in lactating dairy goats
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 105(1), 549–559.
Flunixin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for use in cattle to manage pyrexia associated with bovine respiratory disease, mastitis, and endotoxemia. In the United States, no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are approved for use in goats, but analgesics are needed for management of painful conditions to improve animal welfare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin in dairy goats to determine a milk withdrawal interval (WDI) to avoid violative residue contamination in the food supply. Six adult lactating dairy goats received 3.3 mg/kg of transdermal flunixin before milk, interstitial fluid (ISF), and blood samples were collected at various time points for 360 h. The samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry to detect flunixin as well as the flunixin marker metabolite, 5-hydroxyflunixin followed by a pharmacokinetic WDI calculation using the US Food and Drug Administration tolerance limit method to propose safe residue levels in goat milk. The mean flunixin apparent plasma half-life was 21.63 h. The apparent milk half-life for 5-hydroxyflunixin was 17.52 h. Our findings provide a milk WDI of 60 h using the US Food and Drug Administration tolerance of 0.002 µg/mL (established for bovine milk) and a more conservative WDI of 96 h using a limit of quantification of 0.001 µg/mL following the extralabel use of transdermal flunixin in dairy goats.