The cytochrome P450 (CYP) AspB is involved in the biosynthesis of the diketopiperazine (DKP) aspergilazine A. Tryptophan-linked dimeric DKP alkaloids are a large family of natural products that are found in numerous species and exhibit broad and often potent bioactivity. The proposed mechanisms for C-N bond formation by AspB, and similar C-C bond formations by related CYPs, have invoked the use of a ferryl-intermediate as an oxidant to promote substrate dimerization. Here, the parallel application of steady-state and transient kinetic approaches reveals a very different mechanism that involves a ferric-superoxide species as a primary oxidant to initiate DKP-assembly. Single turnover kinetic isotope effects and a substrate analog suggest the probable nature and site for abstraction. The direct observation of CYP-superoxide reactivity rationalizes the atypical outcome of AspB and reveals a new reaction manifold in heme enzymes.