Works (33)

Updated: November 12th, 2023 05:00

2023 article

Assessing three soil removal methods for environmental DNA analysis of mock forensic geology evidence

Tiedge, T. M., & Meiklejohn, K. A. (2023, October 15). JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Vol. 10.

By: T. Tiedge n & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: DNA metabarcoding; environmental DNA; forensic geology; next generation sequencing; soil; soil removal
Sources: ORCID, Web Of Science
Added: October 16, 2023

2023 article

Using FastID to analyze complex SNP mixtures from indoor dust

Meiklejohn, K. A., Scheible, M. K. R., Boggs, L. M., Dunn, R. R., & Ricke, D. O. (2023, April 3). JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Vol. 4.

By: K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰, M. Scheible n, L. Boggs n, R. Dunn nโ€‰ & D. Ricke*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: FastID; indoor dust; interpretation of DNA mixtures; investigative leads; massively parallel sequencing; MPS; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs
MeSH headings : Humans; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; DNA Fingerprinting / methods; Genotype; DNA / analysis; Software; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Microsatellite Repeats
Sources: ORCID, Web Of Science
Added: April 3, 2023

2022 journal article

๏ปฟAssessing the lysis of diverse pollen from bulk environmental samples for DNA metabarcoding

Metabarcoding and Metagenomics, 6.

By: M. Moore, M. Scheible, J. Robertson*โ€‰ & K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰

Contributors: J. Robertson*โ€‰

Source: ORCID
Added: September 24, 2022

2021 journal article

An alternate workflow for preparing Precision ID Ancestry and Identity Panel libraries for Illumina sequencing

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, 135(5), 1717โ€“1726.

By: M. Scheible n, E. Timpano n, L. Boggs n & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Single  nucleotide polymorphisms; Precision ID; Next-generation sequencing; Ancestry SNPs; Identity SNPs
MeSH headings : Female; Gene Library; Genotyping Techniques; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods; Humans; Male; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods; Workflow
Sources: ORCID, Web Of Science
Added: March 5, 2021

2021 journal article

Comparison of polymerases used for amplification of mitochondrial DNA from challenging hairs and hairs of various treatments

FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL-GENETICS, 52.

By: N. Damaso*, E. Ashe*, K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰, M. Kavlick* & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Mitochondrial DNA; Control region; Hypervariable regions; Hair analysis; Forensic science; Polymerases
MeSH headings : DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics; Electrophoresis, Capillary; Genome, Mitochondrial; Hair / chemistry; Humans; Locus Control Region / genetics; Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods; Racial Groups
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: May 3, 2021

2021 journal article

Current methods, future directions and considerations of DNA-based taxonomic identification in wildlife forensics

Forensic Science International: Animals and Environments, 1, 100030.

By: K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰, M. Burnham-Curtis*, D. Straughan*, J. Giles & M. Mooreโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
Source: ORCID
Added: September 21, 2021

2021 journal article

Performance Comparison of Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) Instruments Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Panels for Ancestry

SLAS TECHNOLOGY, 26(1), 103โ€“112.

By: A. Cooleyโ€‰*, K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰, N. Damaso*, J. Robertson*โ€‰ & T. Dawson Cruz*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: massively parallel DNA sequencing; automation; single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); ancestry; forensic DNA typing
MeSH headings : High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Workflow
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: October 5, 2020

2021 journal article

Using hybridization capture to obtain mitochondrial genomes from forensically relevant North American canids: Assessing sequence variation for species identification

Forensic Science International: Animals and Environments, 1, 100018.

By: M. Scheible n, D. Straughan*, M. Burnham-Curtis* & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
Source: ORCID
Added: June 26, 2021

2020 journal article

Optimization of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) for characterizing land plants from soil

PLOS ONE, 15(4).

By: E. Timpano n, M. Scheible n & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ

Ed(s): R. Kalendar

MeSH headings : Bryophyta / classification; Bryophyta / genetics; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / methods; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / standards; DNA, Intergenic / chemistry; DNA, Intergenic / genetics; DNA, Plant / chemistry; DNA, Plant / genetics; Ferns / classification; Ferns / genetics; Magnoliopsida / classification; Magnoliopsida / genetics; Metagenomics / methods; Metagenomics / standards; Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods; Polymerase Chain Reaction / standards; Soil / chemistry
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: June 15, 2020

2020 journal article

Sequence-based autosomal STR characterization in four US populations using PowerSeqโ„ข Auto/Y system

Forensic Science International: Genetics.

Source: ORCID
Added: June 19, 2020

2020 journal article

The distinctive geographic patterns of common pigmentation variants at the OCA2 gene

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1).

By: K. Kidd*, A. Pakstis*, M. Donnelly*, O. Bulbulโ€‰*, L. Cherniโ€‰*, C. Gurkan*, L. Kang*, H. Liโ€‰* ...

co-author countries: China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Cyprus ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พ Tunisia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tรผrkiye ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
MeSH headings : Alleles; Europe; Eye Color / genetics; Genotype; Humans; Iris / physiology; Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics; Pigmentation / genetics; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: October 26, 2020

2019 journal article

Assessment of BOLD and GenBank - Their accuracy and reliability for the identification of biological materials

PLOS ONE, 14(6).

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, N. Damaso* & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ

Ed(s): S. Fugmann

MeSH headings : Animals; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / methods; Databases, Nucleic Acid; Fungi / classification; Fungi / genetics; Insecta / classification; Insecta / genetics; Plants / classification; Plants / genetics; Reproducibility of Results
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: September 9, 2019

2019 journal article

Single Fragment or Bulk Soil DNA Metabarcoding: Which is Better for Characterizing Biological Taxa Found in Surface Soils for Sample Separation?

Genes, 10(6), 431.

By: L. Boggs n, M. Scheible n, G. Machado nโ€‰ & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ

Contributors: L. Boggs n, M. Scheible n, G. Machado nโ€‰ & K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰

author keywords: DNA barcoding; DNA metabarcoding; plants; animals; forensic-type soils
MeSH headings : Animals; Biodiversity; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / methods; DNA Fingerprinting; Forensic Genetics / methods; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Insecta / chemistry; Insecta / genetics; Metagenome / genetics; Plants / chemistry; Plants / genetics; Soil / chemistry
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: June 28, 2019

2018 journal article

A protocol for obtaining DNA barcodes from plant and insect fragments isolated from forensic-type soils

International Journal of Legal Medicine, 132(6), 1515โ€“1526.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, M. Jackson*, L. Stern* & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Modified DNA barcoding protocol; Plants; Insects; Forensic-type soils
MeSH headings : Animals; DNA / analysis; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / methods; DNA, Plant / analysis; Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics; Insecta / genetics; Plants / genetics; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase / genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Soil
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2018 journal article

An automated independent workflow for the analysis of massively parallel sequence data from forensic SNP assays

ELECTROPHORESIS, 39(21), 2752โ€“2756.

By: N. Vlachos*, K. Meiklejohn nโ€‰ & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: CLC Genomics Workbench; Forensics; Platform agnostic workflow; Python; Single nucleotide polymorphisms
MeSH headings : Forensic Genetics / methods; Gene Frequency; Genomics / methods; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods; Humans; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Software; Workflow
Sources: Web Of Science, ORCID
Added: December 3, 2018

2017 journal article

Evaluation of the Precision ID Identity Panel for the Ion Torrentโ„ข PGMโ„ข sequencer

Forensic Science International: Genetics, 31, 48โ€“56.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰ & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Human identification; Ion Torrent (TM); PGM (TM)
MeSH headings : Chromosomes, Human, Y; DNA Fingerprinting; Genotype; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / instrumentation; Humans; Microsatellite Repeats; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2017 journal article

Isolation of Mitochondrial DNA from Single, Short Hairs without Roots Using Pressure Cycling Technology

SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation, 23(1), 97โ€“105.

By: K. Harper*, K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, R. Merritt*, J. Walker*, C. Fisher* & J. Robertsonโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: automated mitochondrial DNA extraction; pressure cycling technology; Barocycler; forensic DNA analysis; hair
MeSH headings : Automation, Laboratory / methods; DNA, Mitochondrial / isolation & purification; Forensic Medicine / methods; Hair / chemistry; Humans; Hydrostatic Pressure; Specimen Handling / methods
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2017 journal article

Sarcophaga maxima sp. nov. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaginae), a new Australian flesh fly recognised by morphology and DNA barcoding

Austral Entomology, 57(1), 17โ€“24.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman* & T. Papeโ€‰*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ Denmark ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ
author keywords: flesh fly; male terminalia; molecular identification; new species; SEM
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2016 journal article

Analysis of a Rapid Evolutionary Radiation Using Ultraconserved Elements: Evidence for a Bias in Some Multispecies Coalescent Methods

Systematic Biology, 65(4), 612โ€“627.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, B. Fairclothโ€‰*, T. Glenn*, R. Kimballโ€‰* & E. Braunโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Galliformes; gene tree estimation error; Phasianidae; polytomy; supermatrix rooted triplets; Triplec; total evidence
MeSH headings : Biological Evolution; Classification / methods; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Probability
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2016 journal article

Sorting out relationships among the grouse and ptarmigan using intron, mitochondrial, and ultra-conserved element sequences

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 98, 123โ€“132.

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Ultra-conserved elements; Cyto-nuclear discordance; Biogeography; Species tree
MeSH headings : Animals; Cell Nucleus / genetics; Conserved Sequence / genetics; DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics; Evolution, Molecular; Female; Galliformes / classification; Galliformes / genetics; Introns / genetics; Male; Phylogeny; Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2015 journal article

52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel

Forensic Science International: Genetics, 19, 269โ€“271.

By: A. Pakstis*, E. Haigh*, L. Cherniโ€‰*, A. ElGaaied*, A. Bartonโ€‰*, B. Evsanaa*, A. Togtokh, J. Brissenden* ...

co-author countries: Canada ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ Tunisia ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณ Tรผrkiye ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: SNP; Ancestry; Reference database; FROG-kb; ALFRED
MeSH headings : DNA / genetics; Databases, Genetic; Genetics, Population; Humans; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2014 journal article

A Preliminary Framework for DNA Barcoding, Incorporating the Multispecies Coalescent

Systematic Biology, 63(4), 639โ€“644.

By: M. Dowtonโ€‰*, K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, S. Cameronโ€‰* & J. Wallman*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ
MeSH headings : Classification / methods; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / standards; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / trends; Databases, Nucleic Acid; Phylogeny
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2014 journal article

Assessing PreCRโ„ข repair enzymes for restoration of STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA for human identification

Forensic Science International: Genetics, 12, 168โ€“180.

By: J. Robertsonโ€‰*, S. Dineen*, K. Scott*, J. Lucyshyn*, M. Saeedโ€‰*, D. Murphy*, A. Schweighardt*, K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: DNA repair; Degraded DNA; PreCR (TM) Repair Mix; Degraded DNA reference sample; Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis; Forensic biology
MeSH headings : DNA Repair; Forensic Anthropology; Humans; Microsatellite Repeats
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2014 journal article

Incongruence among different mitochondrial regions: A case study using complete mitogenomes

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 78, 314โ€“323.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, M. Danielson*, B. Fairclothโ€‰*, T. Glenn*, E. Braunโ€‰* & R. Kimballโ€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Galliformes; Codon models; Mixture models; Noise reduction; Taxon sampling
MeSH headings : Animals; Codon; Galliformes / classification; Galliformes / genetics; Genes, Mitochondrial; Genome, Mitochondrial; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny; Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2014 journal article

The evolution of peafowl and other taxa with ocelli (eyespots): a phylogenomic approach

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1790), 20140823โ€“20140823.

By: K. Sunโ€‰*, K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, B. Fairclothโ€‰*, T. Glenn*, E. Braunโ€‰* & R. Kimballโ€‰*

co-author countries: China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: eyespots; homology; ocelli; sexual selection; ultraconserved elements
MeSH headings : Animals; Base Sequence; Biological Evolution; Feathers / anatomy & histology; Female; Galliformes / classification; Galliformes / genetics; Male; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny; Pigmentation / genetics
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2013 journal article

A key to the Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera) with special emphasis on Sarcophaga (sensu lato)

Zootaxa, 3680(1), 148.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, M. Dowton, T. Pape & J. Wallman

author keywords: Flesh flies; Sarcophaginae; morphology; male terminalia
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2013 journal article

DNA Barcoding Identifies all Immature Life Stages of a Forensically Important Flesh Fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(1), 184โ€“187.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman* & M. Dowtonโ€‰*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ
author keywords: forensic science; forensic entomology; mitochondrial DNA; DNA barcoding; species identification; immatures; Diptera; Sarcophagidae
MeSH headings : Animals; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic; DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics; Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics; Larva / genetics; Pupa / genetics; Sarcophagidae / genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2013 journal article

Phylogeography of the Rickettโ€™s big-footed bat, Myotis pilosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): a novel pattern of genetic structure of bats in China

BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13(1), 241.

By: G. Lu*, A. Linโ€‰*, J. Luoโ€‰*, D. Blondel*, K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, K. Sunโ€‰*, J. Fengโ€‰*

co-author countries: China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ United States of America ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
author keywords: Genetic structure; Demographic history; Multiple refugia; Male-mediated dispersal
MeSH headings : Animals; Biodiversity; China; Chiroptera / classification; Chiroptera / genetics; DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics; Female; Gene Flow; Genetic Variation; Genetics, Population; Male; Microsatellite Repeats; Phylogeny; Phylogeography
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2013 journal article

Updates on the taxonomy and nomenclature of Australian Sarcophaga (sensu lato) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), with descriptions of two new species

Zootaxa, 3680(1), 139.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman & T. Pape

author keywords: Diptera; Sarcophagidae; Australia; synonymies; new species
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2013 journal article

Utility of COI, CAD and morphological data for resolving relationships within the genus Sarcophaga (sensu lato) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A preliminary study

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 69(1), 133โ€“141.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman*, T. Papeโ€‰*, S. Cameronโ€‰* & M. Dowtonโ€‰*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ Denmark ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐ
author keywords: Sarcophagidae; Diptera; Sarcophaga (sensu lato); Phylogeny; Molecular; Morphological
MeSH headings : Animals; Bayes Theorem; Biological Evolution; Cell Nucleus / genetics; DNA, Mitochondrial / classification; DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics; Electron Transport Complex IV / classification; Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics; Homeodomain Proteins / classification; Homeodomain Proteins / genetics; Phylogeny; Phylogeography; Sarcophagidae / classification; Sarcophagidae / genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Time Factors
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2012 journal article

Comprehensive evaluation of DNA barcoding for the molecular species identification of forensically important Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera)

Invertebrate Systematics, 26(6), 515.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman*, S. Cameronโ€‰* & M. Dowtonโ€‰*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ
author keywords: COI; forensic entomology
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2012 journal article

Notes on the Distribution of 31 Species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) in Australia, Including new Records in Australia for Eight Species

Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 136(1), 56โ€“64.

By: K. MeikleJohn*โ€‰, M. Dowtonโ€‰* & J. Wallman*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

2009 journal article

DNA-based identification of forensically important Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera)

International Journal of Legal Medicine, 125(1), 27โ€“32.

By: K. Meiklejohn*โ€‰, J. Wallman* & M. Dowtonโ€‰*

co-author countries: Australia ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ
author keywords: Sarcophagidae; Diptera; Forensic entomology; COI; DNA 'barcoding'; Identification
MeSH headings : Animals; Base Sequence; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic; Diptera / genetics; Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sources: Crossref, ORCID
Added: July 27, 2019

Employment

Updated: October 11th, 2023 09:14

2023 - present

North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, US
Associate Professor of Forensic Science Population Health and Pathobiology

2018 - 2023

North Carolina State University Raleigh, US
Assistant Professor of Forensic Science Population Health and Pathobiology

2014 - 2017

Federal Bureau of Investigation Quantico, VA, US
Post Doctoral Research Fellow Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit

2012 - 2013

University of Florida Gainesville, FL, US
Post Doctoral Associate Department of Biology

Education

Updated: September 25th, 2019 10:55

2009 - 2012

University of Wollongong Wollongong, AU
Doctor of Philosophy School of Biological Sciences

2005 - 2008

University of Wollongong Wollongong, AU
Bachelor of Biotechnology (Advanced) Honors Class I School of Biological Sciences